Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Role of Intestinal Hydrolase in the Absorption of Prenylated Flavonoids Present in Yinyanghuo
Key Laboratory of New Drug Delivery System of Chinese Materia Medica, Jiangsu Provincial Academy of Chinese Medicine, 100 Shizi Road, Nanjing 210028, China
Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, 1441 Moursund Street, Houston, TX 77030, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 December 2010; in revised form: 25 January 2011 / Accepted: 27 January 2011 / Published: 1 February 2011
Abstract: Purpose: Yinyanghuo (Herba Epimdii) is a traditional Chinese herb containing prenylated flavonoids as its active constituents. The aim of this study was to examine the significance of the intestinal hydrolysis of prenylated flavonoids by lactase phlorizin hydrolase (LPH), an enzyme at the brush border membrane of intestinal cells. Methods: A four-site perfused rat intestinal model was used. The concentration of the flavonoids of interest and their metabolites in different intestinal segements were analyzed by HPLC, and the apparent permeabilities were calculated. A lactase phlorizin hydrolase inhibitor (gluconolactone) was employed to investigate the mechanism of the intestinal absorption, and the metabolites of the four flavonoids were identified using LC/MS/MS. Results: Diglycosides (icariin) or triglycosides (epimedin A, epimedin B, and epimedin C) were hydrolyzed rapidly in duodenum and jejunum producing one or two metabolites, while a monoglycoside (baohuoside I) was absorbed directly. When co-perfused with glucono-lactone, both the hydrolysis of diglycosides and triglycosides were significantly inhibited, with inhibition rates for icariin (62%, 50%, 40%, 46%), epimedin A, (55%, 26%, 21%, 14%); epimedin B (42%, 40%, 74%, 22%), and epimedin C (42%, 40%, 52%, 35%) in duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon, respectively. Also the metabolites of icariin, epimedin A, epimedin B, and epimedin C were identified as baohuoside I (one of two), sagittatoside A, sagittatoside B, and 2"-O-rhamnosylicariside II, respectively. Conclusions: The results showed that lactase phlorizin hydrolase was a major determinant of the intestinal absorption of prenylated flavonoids present in Yinyanghuo.
Keywords: flavonoid; lactase phlorizin hydrolase; metabolite; rat intestine; Yinyanghuo
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Chen, Y.; Wang, J.; Jia, X.; Tan, X.; Hu, M. Role of Intestinal Hydrolase in the Absorption of Prenylated Flavonoids Present in Yinyanghuo. Molecules 2011, 16, 1336-1348.
Chen Y, Wang J, Jia X, Tan X, Hu M. Role of Intestinal Hydrolase in the Absorption of Prenylated Flavonoids Present in Yinyanghuo. Molecules. 2011; 16(2):1336-1348.
Chen, Yan; Wang, Jinyan; Jia, Xiaobin; Tan, Xiaobin; Hu, Ming. 2011. "Role of Intestinal Hydrolase in the Absorption of Prenylated Flavonoids Present in Yinyanghuo." Molecules 16, no. 2: 1336-1348.