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Cross-Coupling Reactions as Valuable Tool for the Preparation of PET Radiotracers
Institut für Radiopharmazie, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Bautzner Landstraße 400, D-01328 Dresden, Germany
OncoRay – National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden University of Technology, Fetscherstraße 74, P.O. Box 41, D-01307 Dresden, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2010; in revised form: 17 January 2011 / Accepted: 21 January 2011 / Published: 26 January 2011
Abstract: The increasing application of positron emission tomography (PET) in nuclear medicine has stimulated the extensive development of a multitude of new radiotracers and novel radiolabeling procedures with the most prominent short-lived positron emitters carbon-11 and fluorine-18. Radiolabeling with these radionuclides represents a remarkable challenge. Special attention has to be paid to synthesis time and specific labeling techniques due to the short physical half life of the respective radionuclides 11C (t1/2 = 20.4 min) and 18F (t1/2 = 109.8 min). In the past, numerous transition metal-catalyzed reactions were employed in organic chemistry, even though only a handful of these coupling reactions were adopted in radiochemical practice. Thus, the implementation of modern synthesis methods like cross-coupling reactions offers the possibility to develop a wide variety of novel radiotracers. The introduction of catalysts based on transition metal complexes bears a high potential for rapid, efficient, highly selective and functional group-tolerating incorporation of carbon-11 and fluorine-18 into target molecules. This review deals with design, application and improvement of transition metal-mediated carbon-carbon as well as carbon-heteroatom cross-coupling reactions as a labeling feature with the focus on the preparation of radiolabeled compounds for molecular imaging.
Keywords: cross-coupling; radiolabeling; carbon-11; fluorine-18
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MDPI and ACS Style
Pretze, M.; Große-Gehling, P.; Mamat, C. Cross-Coupling Reactions as Valuable Tool for the Preparation of PET Radiotracers. Molecules 2011, 16, 1129-1165.
Pretze M, Große-Gehling P, Mamat C. Cross-Coupling Reactions as Valuable Tool for the Preparation of PET Radiotracers. Molecules. 2011; 16(2):1129-1165.
Pretze, Marc; Große-Gehling, Philipp; Mamat, Constantin. 2011. "Cross-Coupling Reactions as Valuable Tool for the Preparation of PET Radiotracers." Molecules 16, no. 2: 1129-1165.