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Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9142-9152; doi:10.3390/molecules16119142

Pyrazinecarboxamides as Potential Elicitors of Flavonolignan and Flavonoid Production in Silybum marianum and Ononis arvensis Cultures In Vitro

1
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Charles University in Prague, Heyrovskeho 1203, 500 05 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
2
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Hradec Kralove, Rokitanskeho 62, 500 03 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Charles University in Prague, Heyrovskeho 1203, 500 05 Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 September 2011 / Revised: 25 October 2011 / Accepted: 28 October 2011 / Published: 1 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products)
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Abstract

The effect of new synthetic pyrazinecarboxamide derivatives as potential elicitors of flavonolignan and flavonoid production in Silybum marianum and Ononis arvensis cultures in vitro was investigated. Both tested elicitors increased the production of flavonolignans in S. marianum callus and suspension cultures and flavonoids in O. arvensis callus and suspension cultures. Compound I, 5-(2-hydroxybenzoyl)-pyrazine-2-carboxamide, has shown to be an effective elicitor of flavonolignans and taxifoline production in Silybum marianum culture in vitro. The maximum content of silydianin (0.11%) in S. marianum suspension culture was induced by 24 h elicitor application in concentration of 1.159 × 10−3 mol/L. The maximum content of silymarin complex (0.08%) in callus culture of S. marianum was induced by 168 h elicitor application of a concentration 1.159 × 10−4 mol/L, which represents contents of silydianin (0.03%), silychristin (0.01%) and isosilybin A (0.04%) compared with control. All three tested concentrations of compound II, N-(2-bromo-3-methylphenyl)-5-tert-butylpyrazin-2-carboxamide increased the flavonoid production in callus culture of O. arvensis in a statistically significant way. The best elicitation effect of all elicitor concentrations had the weakest c3 concentration (8.36 × 10−6 mol/L) after 168 h time of duration. The maximum content of flavonoids (about 5,900%) in suspension culture of O. arvensis was induced by 48 h application of c3 concentration (8.36 × 10−6 mol/L).
Keywords: abiotic elicitors; amides of pyrazinecarboxylic acids; flavonoid; flavonolignan; Silybum marianum; Ononis arvensis abiotic elicitors; amides of pyrazinecarboxylic acids; flavonoid; flavonolignan; Silybum marianum; Ononis arvensis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tumova, L.; Tuma, J.; Dolezal, M. Pyrazinecarboxamides as Potential Elicitors of Flavonolignan and Flavonoid Production in Silybum marianum and Ononis arvensis Cultures In Vitro. Molecules 2011, 16, 9142-9152.

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