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Flavonoid and Leaf Gas Exchange Responses of Centella asiatica to Acute Gamma Irradiation and Carbon Dioxide Enrichment under Controlled Environment Conditions
University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
Agrotechnology & Biosciences Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
Forestry and Environment Division, Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM), Kepong, 52109 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 July 2011; in revised form: 21 October 2011 / Accepted: 23 October 2011 / Published: 25 October 2011
Abstract: The study was couducted to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation and CO2 on flavonoid content and leaf gas exchange in C.asiatica. For flavonoid determination, the design was a split split plot based on Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). For other parameters, the designs were split plots. Statistical tests revealed significant differences in flavonoid contents of Centella asiatica leaves between different growth stages and various CO2 treatments. CO2 400, G20 (400 = ambient CO2; G20 = Plants exposed to 20 Gy) showed 82.90% higher total flavonoid content (TFC) in the 5th week than CO2 400 as control at its best harvest time (4th week). Increasing the concentration of CO2 from 400 to 800 μmol/mol had significant effects on TFC and harvesting time. In fact, 800 μmol/mol resulted in 171.1% and 66.62% increases in TFC for control and irradiated plants, respectively. Moreover, increasing CO2 concentration reduced the harvesting time to three and four weeks for control and irradiated plants, respectively. Enhancing CO2 to 800 µmol/mol resulted in a 193.30% (CO2 800) increase in leaf biomass compared to 400 µmol/mol and 226.34% enhancement in irradiated plants (CO2 800, G20) [800 = Ambient CO2; G20 = Plants exposed to 20 Gy] than CO2 400, G20. In addition, the CO2 800, G20 had the highest amount of flavonoid*biomass in the 4th week. The results of this study indicated that all elevated CO2 treatments had higher PN than the ambient ones. The findings showed that when CO2 level increased from 400 to 800 µmol/mol, stomatal conductance, leaf intercellular CO2 and transpiration rate had the tendency to decrease. However, water use efficiency increased in response to elevated CO2 concentration. Returning to the findings of this study, it is now possible to state that the proposed method (combined CO2 and gamma irradiation) has the potential to increase the product value by reducing the time to harvest, increasing the yield per unit area via boosting photosynthesis capacity, as well as increasing biochemicals (flavonoids) per gram DM.
Keywords: C.asiatica; CO2 enrichment; gamma irradiation; leaf gas exchange
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Moghaddam, S.S.; Jaafar, H.B.; Aziz, M.A.; Ibrahim, R.; Rahmat, A.B.; Philip, E. Flavonoid and Leaf Gas Exchange Responses of Centella asiatica to Acute Gamma Irradiation and Carbon Dioxide Enrichment under Controlled Environment Conditions. Molecules 2011, 16, 8930-8944.
Moghaddam SS, Jaafar HB, Aziz MA, Ibrahim R, Rahmat AB, Philip E. Flavonoid and Leaf Gas Exchange Responses of Centella asiatica to Acute Gamma Irradiation and Carbon Dioxide Enrichment under Controlled Environment Conditions. Molecules. 2011; 16(11):8930-8944.
Moghaddam, Sina Siavash; Jaafar, Hawa Binti; Aziz, Maheran Abdul; Ibrahim, Rusli; Rahmat, Asmah Bt; Philip, Elizabeth. 2011. "Flavonoid and Leaf Gas Exchange Responses of Centella asiatica to Acute Gamma Irradiation and Carbon Dioxide Enrichment under Controlled Environment Conditions." Molecules 16, no. 11: 8930-8944.