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Molecules 2011, 16(1), 543-551; doi:10.3390/molecules160100543
Article

Antimicrobial Activity of Diterpenes from Viguiera arenaria against Endodontic Bacteria

1, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 3, 1, 1 and 1,*
Received: 17 December 2010 / Revised: 28 December 2010 / Accepted: 5 January 2011 / Published: 13 January 2011
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Abstract

Six pimarane-type diterpenes isolated from Viguiera arenaria Baker and two semi-synthetic derivatives were evaluated in vitro against a panel of representative microorganisms responsible for dental root canal infections. The microdilution method was used for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella nigrescens, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella buccae, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces viscosus, Peptostreptococcus micros, Enterococcus faecalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The compounds ent-pimara-8(14),15-dien-19-oic acid, its sodium salt and ent-8(14),15-pimaradien-3β-ol were the most active, displaying MIC values ranging from 1 to 10 μg mL-1. The results also allow us to conclude that minor structural differences among these diterpenes significantly influence their antimicrobial activity, bringing new perspectives to the discovery of new chemicals for use as a complement to instrumental endodontic procedures.
Keywords: antimicrobial activity; endodontic bacteria; pimarane diterpenes; structural requirements; Viguiera arenaria antimicrobial activity; endodontic bacteria; pimarane diterpenes; structural requirements; Viguiera arenaria
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Carvalho, T.C.; Simão, M.R.; Ambrósio, S.R.; Furtado, N.A.J.C.; Veneziani, R.C.S.; Heleno, V.C.G.; Da Costa, F.B.; Gomes, B.P.F.A.; Souza, M.G.M.; Borges dos Reis, E.; Martins, C.H.G. Antimicrobial Activity of Diterpenes from Viguiera arenaria against Endodontic Bacteria. Molecules 2011, 16, 543-551.

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