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Molecules 2011, 16(1), 1-15; doi:10.3390/molecules16010001
Article

Triterpenoid Contents and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of the Methanol Extracts of Ligustrum Species Leaves

1,* , 2
, 3
, 4
, 5
 and 6
1 Graduate Institute of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, China Medical University, 91 Hsieh Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan 2 Department of Cosmeceutics, College of Pharmacy, China Medical University, 91 Hsieh Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan 3 Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, China Medical University, 91 Hsieh Shih Road, Taichung, 40402 Taiwan 4 The School of Chinese Medicines for Post-Baccalaureate, I-Shou University, No.8, Yida Rd., Yanchao Township, Kaohsiung County 82445, Taiwan 5 Department of Pharmacy, Taichung Tzu Chi General Hospital, No.66, Fongsing Rd., Tanzih Township, Taichung County 427, Taiwan 6 Taichung Hospital, Department of Health, The Executive Yuan, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 November 2010 / Revised: 16 December 2010 / Accepted: 21 December 2010 / Published: 23 December 2010
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Abstract

Ligustrum (privet) plants are used by Chinese physicians to prevent and cure hepatitis and chronic bronchitis. Three common Ligustrum plant spp., namely Ligustrum lucidum Ait. (LL), L. pricei Hayata (LP) and L. sinensis Lour. (LS) were collected to assess their analgesic/anti-inflammatory properties on chemical-induced nociception and carrageenan-induced inflammation in rodents. The methanol extracts from Ligustrum plants leaves effectively inhibited nociceptive responses induced by 1% acetic acid and 1% formalin. LP and LL reduced the edema induced by 1% carrageenan. LP exhibited the best potency of the Ligustrum plants. Furthermore, LP reduced the abdominal Evan’s blue extravasations caused by lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, autocrines and sodium nitroprusside. The triterpenoid content of the three Ligustrum spp. was measured by high performance liquid chromatography using a photodiode array detector. LP contained the highest content of amyrin, betulinic acid and lupeol. LL had the highest content of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. The various degrees of analgesic/anti-inflammatory effects among three Ligustrum plants may be related to their different triterpenoid contents. LP is a potential analgesic and anti-inflammatory Ligustrum plant. The effects of LP are partially related to the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 activity and a decrease in microvascular permeability via the actions of autocrines and kinins.
Keywords: Ligustrum plants; Ligustrum pricei; analgesic activity; anti-inflammatory activity; triterpenoids Ligustrum plants; Ligustrum pricei; analgesic activity; anti-inflammatory activity; triterpenoids
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, C.-R.; Hseu, Y.-C.; Lien, J.-C.; Lin, L.-W.; Lin, Y.-T.; Ching, H. Triterpenoid Contents and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of the Methanol Extracts of Ligustrum Species Leaves. Molecules 2011, 16, 1-15.

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