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Yields and Constituents of Essential Oil from Cones of Pinaceae spp. Natively Grown in Turkey
Faculty of Forestry, Bartin University, 74100 Bartin, Turkey
Department of Wood and Paper Chemistry, Åbo Akademi University, 20500 Turku, Finland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 July 2010; in revised form: 17 August 2010 / Accepted: 23 August 2010 / Published: 24 August 2010
Abstract: In this study, the yields and composition of essential oils obtained from the cones of Pinaceae family species natively grown in Turkey were investigated. Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation. Oil yields were 0.13-0.48 mL/100 g in pine cones, 0.42-0.59 mL/100g in fir, 0.36 mL/100g in spruce and 0.37 mL/100g in cedar. While a-pinene (47.1-14.8%) was the main constituent of P. slyvestris, P. nigra and P. halepensis, limonene (62.8%) in P. pinea and b-pinene (39.6%) in P. brutia were found in higher amounts. Like in P. pinea, limonene was the main compound in Cedrus libani (22.7%). In fir species the major compounds were a-pinene (70.6-53.0%) and b-pinene (10.9-8.2%). Contrary to other species b-pinene (32.7%) was found as a major compound in Picea orientalis.
Keywords: essential oil; terpenes; Pinaceae; fir; cones; GC/MS
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Tumen, I.; Hafizoglu, H.; Kilic, A.; Dönmez, I.E.; Sivrikaya, H.; Reunanen, M. Yields and Constituents of Essential Oil from Cones of Pinaceae spp. Natively Grown in Turkey. Molecules 2010, 15, 5797-5806.
Tumen I, Hafizoglu H, Kilic A, Dönmez IE, Sivrikaya H, Reunanen M. Yields and Constituents of Essential Oil from Cones of Pinaceae spp. Natively Grown in Turkey. Molecules. 2010; 15(8):5797-5806.
Tumen, Ibrahim; Hafizoglu, Harzemsah; Kilic, Ayben; Dönmez, Ilhami Emrah; Sivrikaya, Huseyin; Reunanen, Markku. 2010. "Yields and Constituents of Essential Oil from Cones of Pinaceae spp. Natively Grown in Turkey." Molecules 15, no. 8: 5797-5806.