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Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti Larvae of Essential Oils from Four Guarea Species
Coordenação de Pesquisas em Produtos Naturais, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, CP 478, 69011-970 Manaus-AM, Brazil
Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, CP 28, 13001-970, Campinas, SP, Brazil
Laboratório de Vetores de Malária e Dengue, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, CP 478, 69011-970 Manaus-AM, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 July 2010; in revised form: 31 July 2010 / Accepted: 5 August 2010 / Published: 19 August 2010
Abstract: The essential oils of four Guarea species collected at Manaus (Amazonas, Brazil) were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. Except for one diterpene detected, the compounds identified in the essential oils were hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The major sesquiterpenes were α-santalene (26.26%) and α-copaene (14.61%) from G. convergens branches; caryophyllene epoxide (40.91%) and humulene epoxide II (14.43%) from G. humaitensis branches; cis-caryophyllene (33.37%) and α-trans-bergamotene (11.88%) from G. scabra leaves; caryophyllene epoxide (36.54%) in leaves and spathulenol (14.34%) in branches from G. silvatica. The diterpene kaurene (15.61%) was found in G. silvatica leaves. Larvicidal activity assay of essential oils against third-instar Aedes aegypti larvae revealed that at higher concentrations (500 and 250 μg/mL), all the essential oils caused 100% mortality after 24 h of exposure. The most active essential oils were those of G. humaitensis branches (LC50 48.6 μg/mL), G. scabra leaves (LC50 98.6 μg/mL) and G. silvatica (LC50 117.9 μg/mL). The differences in the toxicity of essential oils of Guarea species on A. aegypti are due to qualitative and quantitative variations of the components, therefore the larvicidal effect may be due to higher amount of the sesquiterpenes with caryophyllane skeleton.
Keywords: Guarea convergens; Guarea humaitensis; Guarea scabra; Guarea silvatica; Meliaceae
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Amazonas Maciel Magalhães, L.; Da Paz Lima, M.; Ortiz Mayo Marques, M.; Facanali, R.; Pinto, A.C.S.; Pedro Tadei, W. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti Larvae of Essential Oils from Four Guarea Species. Molecules 2010, 15, 5734-5741.
Amazonas Maciel Magalhães L, Da Paz Lima M, Ortiz Mayo Marques M, Facanali R, Pinto ACS, Pedro Tadei W. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti Larvae of Essential Oils from Four Guarea Species. Molecules. 2010; 15(8):5734-5741.
Amazonas Maciel Magalhães, Lyege; Da Paz Lima, Maria; Ortiz Mayo Marques, Marcia; Facanali, Roselaine; Pinto, Ana Cristina da Silva; Pedro Tadei, Wanderli. 2010. "Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti Larvae of Essential Oils from Four Guarea Species." Molecules 15, no. 8: 5734-5741.