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Molecules 2010, 15(4), 2925-2934; doi:10.3390/molecules15042925
Article

Evaluation of the Antinociceptive Activity and Acute Oral Toxicity of Standardized Ethanolic Extract of the Rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb

1, 1, 1,* , 1 and 2
1 Centre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia 2 School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 January 2010 / Revised: 25 February 2010 / Accepted: 22 March 2010 / Published: 22 April 2010
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Abstract

Ethanolic extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza was used to evaluate the analgesic and toxicity effects in vivo. The extract was standardized using GC-MS, which showed that 1 mg of Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract contains 0.1238 mg of xanthorrhizol. The analgesic activity was studied in rats using three different models, namely the hot plate test, tail flick test and formalin-induced pain test. The acute oral toxicity was examined by the oral administration of standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract in mice at doses ranging from 300–5,000 mg/kg and observation for 14 days. Standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract did not show significant analgesic effect in the hot plate and tail flick tests. However, in the formalin-induced pain test, Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the paw licking time of rats in both early and late phases at doses 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. In the acute oral toxicity study, Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract did not show any toxic effects in mice at 5 g/kg. These experimental results suggest that the standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract showed peripheral and central antinociceptive activity associated with neurogenic pain as well as a relative absence of toxic effects which could compromise the medicinal use of this plant in folk medicine.
Keywords: analgesic; acute oral toxicity; Curcuma xanthorrhiza;peripheral; standardized analgesic; acute oral toxicity; Curcuma xanthorrhiza; peripheral; standardized
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Devaraj, S.; Esfahani, A.S.; Ismail, S.; Ramanathan, S.; Yam, M.F. Evaluation of the Antinociceptive Activity and Acute Oral Toxicity of Standardized Ethanolic Extract of the Rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. Molecules 2010, 15, 2925-2934.

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