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Microwave Multicomponent Synthesis
Molecules 2010, 15(2), 813-823; doi:10.3390/molecules15020813
Article

Microwave-Assisted and Efficient Solvent-free Knoevenagel Condensation. A Sustainable Protocol Using Porous Calcium Hydroxyapatite as Catalyst

1, 1,* , 2 and 3,*
Received: 8 December 2009; in revised form: 21 January 2010 / Accepted: 21 January 2010 / Published: 4 February 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Assisted Synthesis)
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Abstract: A sustainable Knoevenagel condensation of a series of aldehydes with malononitrile and ethyl cyanoacetate is described. The process is based on the combination of microwave activation and hydroxyapatite catalysis under solvent-free conditions. Products are obtained in and high yields after short reaction times. The effects of the specific surface of porous calcium hydroxyapatite and microwave activation are discussed.
Keywords: solvent-free; sustainable procedure; microwave; Knoevenagel; catalysis solvent-free; sustainable procedure; microwave; Knoevenagel; catalysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mallouk, S.; Bougrin, K.; Laghzizil, A.; Benhida, R. Microwave-Assisted and Efficient Solvent-free Knoevenagel Condensation. A Sustainable Protocol Using Porous Calcium Hydroxyapatite as Catalyst. Molecules 2010, 15, 813-823.

AMA Style

Mallouk S, Bougrin K, Laghzizil A, Benhida R. Microwave-Assisted and Efficient Solvent-free Knoevenagel Condensation. A Sustainable Protocol Using Porous Calcium Hydroxyapatite as Catalyst. Molecules. 2010; 15(2):813-823.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mallouk, Siham; Bougrin, Khalid; Laghzizil, Abdelaziz; Benhida, Rachid. 2010. "Microwave-Assisted and Efficient Solvent-free Knoevenagel Condensation. A Sustainable Protocol Using Porous Calcium Hydroxyapatite as Catalyst." Molecules 15, no. 2: 813-823.


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