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Molecules 2010, 15(2), 813-823; doi:10.3390/molecules15020813

Microwave-Assisted and Efficient Solvent-free Knoevenagel Condensation. A Sustainable Protocol Using Porous Calcium Hydroxyapatite as Catalyst

1
Laboratoire de Chimie des Plantes et de Synthèse Organique et Bioorganique, Université Mohammed V-Agdal, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014 R.P, Rabat, Maroc
2
Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Générale, Université Mohammed V-Agdal, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 1014 R.P, Rabat, Maroc
3
Laboratoire de Chimie des Molécules Bioactives et des Arômes, UMR 6001 CNRS, Institut de Chimie de Nice, Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 28 avenue de Valrose, 06108 Nice Cedex 2, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 December 2009 / Revised: 21 January 2010 / Accepted: 21 January 2010 / Published: 4 February 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Assisted Synthesis)
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Abstract

A sustainable Knoevenagel condensation of a series of aldehydes with malononitrile and ethyl cyanoacetate is described. The process is based on the combination of microwave activation and hydroxyapatite catalysis under solvent-free conditions. Products are obtained in and high yields after short reaction times. The effects of the specific surface of porous calcium hydroxyapatite and microwave activation are discussed.
Keywords: solvent-free; sustainable procedure; microwave; Knoevenagel; catalysis solvent-free; sustainable procedure; microwave; Knoevenagel; catalysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mallouk, S.; Bougrin, K.; Laghzizil, A.; Benhida, R. Microwave-Assisted and Efficient Solvent-free Knoevenagel Condensation. A Sustainable Protocol Using Porous Calcium Hydroxyapatite as Catalyst. Molecules 2010, 15, 813-823.

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