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Molecules 2010, 15(12), 9057-9091; doi:10.3390/molecules15129057

Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Their Regulation in Colored Grapes

1,†, 1,†, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2 and 1,*
1 Center for Viticulture and Enology, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China 2 Faculty of Applied Science, Business and Computing, Eastern Institute of Technology, Napier 4142, New Zealand These authors equally contributed to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 October 2010 / Accepted: 7 December 2010 / Published: 9 December 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolics and Polyphenolics)
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Anthocyanins, synthesized via the flavonoid pathway, are a class of crucial phenolic compounds which are fundamentally responsible for the red color of grapes and wines. As the most important natural colorants in grapes and their products, anthocyanins are also widely studied for their numerous beneficial effects on human health. In recent years, the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins in grapes has been thoroughly investigated. Their intracellular transportation and accumulation have also been further clarified. Additionally, the genetic mechanism regulating their biosynthesis and the phytohormone influences on them are better understood. Furthermore, due to their importance in the quality of wine grapes, the effects of the environmental factors and viticulture practices on anthocyanin accumulation are being investigated increasingly. The present paper summarizes both the basic information and the most recent advances in the study of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red grapes, emphasizing their gene structure, the transcriptional factors and the diverse exterior regulation factors.
Keywords: anthocyanins; grape; biosynthesis; regulation; phytohormone; environmental factors; viticulture anthocyanins; grape; biosynthesis; regulation; phytohormone; environmental factors; viticulture
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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He, F.; Mu, L.; Yan, G.-L.; Liang, N.-N.; Pan, Q.-H.; Wang, J.; Reeves, M.J.; Duan, C.-Q. Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Their Regulation in Colored Grapes. Molecules 2010, 15, 9057-9091.

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