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Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Their Regulation in Colored Grapes
Center for Viticulture and Enology, College of Food Science & Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
Faculty of Applied Science, Business and Computing, Eastern Institute of Technology, Napier 4142, New Zealand
These authors equally contributed to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 October 2010; Accepted: 7 December 2010 / Published: 9 December 2010
Abstract: Anthocyanins, synthesized via the flavonoid pathway, are a class of crucial phenolic compounds which are fundamentally responsible for the red color of grapes and wines. As the most important natural colorants in grapes and their products, anthocyanins are also widely studied for their numerous beneficial effects on human health. In recent years, the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins in grapes has been thoroughly investigated. Their intracellular transportation and accumulation have also been further clarified. Additionally, the genetic mechanism regulating their biosynthesis and the phytohormone influences on them are better understood. Furthermore, due to their importance in the quality of wine grapes, the effects of the environmental factors and viticulture practices on anthocyanin accumulation are being investigated increasingly. The present paper summarizes both the basic information and the most recent advances in the study of the anthocyanin biosynthesis in red grapes, emphasizing their gene structure, the transcriptional factors and the diverse exterior regulation factors.
Keywords: anthocyanins; grape; biosynthesis; regulation; phytohormone; environmental factors; viticulture
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MDPI and ACS Style
He, F.; Mu, L.; Yan, G.-L.; Liang, N.-N.; Pan, Q.-H.; Wang, J.; Reeves, M.J.; Duan, C.-Q. Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Their Regulation in Colored Grapes. Molecules 2010, 15, 9057-9091.
He F, Mu L, Yan G-L, Liang N-N, Pan Q-H, Wang J, Reeves MJ, Duan C-Q. Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Their Regulation in Colored Grapes. Molecules. 2010; 15(12):9057-9091.
He, Fei; Mu, Lin; Yan, Guo-Liang; Liang, Na-Na; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Wang, Jun; Reeves, Malcolm J.; Duan, Chang-Qing. 2010. "Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Their Regulation in Colored Grapes." Molecules 15, no. 12: 9057-9091.