Next Article in Journal
The Influence of Mixed Activators on Ethylene Polymerization and Ethylene/1-Hexene Copolymerization with Silica-Supported Ziegler-Natta Catalyst
Next Article in Special Issue
Seasonal Variation in Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents and DPPH Scavenging Activity of Bellis perennis L. Flowers
Previous Article in Journal
A Novel Benzo[f][1,7]Naphthyridine Produced by Streptomyces Albogriseolus from Mangrove Sediments
Previous Article in Special Issue
Biosynthesis of Anthocyanins and Their Regulation in Colored Grapes
Article Menu

Article Versions

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2010, 15(12), 9308-9322; doi:10.3390/molecules15129308

Antioxidant Activity of Lignin Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Kraft and Sulphite Black Liquors

Textile & Paper Materials Research Unit, University of Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, ESTT, Polytechnic Institute of Tomar, 2300-313 Tomar, Portugal
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Beira Interior, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
Faculty of Health Sciences, Health Sciences Research Centre, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 October 2010 / Revised: 13 December 2010 / Accepted: 14 December 2010 / Published: 16 December 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolics and Polyphenolics)
Download PDF [276 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014]


The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds present in industrial black liquors obtained from the two cooking processes (kraft and sulphite) used in Portugal to produce Eucalyptus globulus pulp was evaluated. The black liquors treated at several pH values were extracted with ethyl acetate. Phenolic fractions were further separated by liquid chromatography of the crude extracts of kraft liquor at pH = 6 and sulphite liquor at the original pH. Total phenolic content was determined in terms of gallic acid equivalents (Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method), and the antioxidant activity in the crude extracts at several pH values and in the separated fractions was measured using the DPPH test for radical scavenging capacity. The total phenolic content of crude extracts and separated fractions ranged from 92.7 to 181.6 and from 91.6 to 1,099.6 mg GAE/g, respectively, while the antioxidant activity index (AAI) ranged from 2.20 to 3.41 and from 2.21 to 11.47 respectively, showing very strong antioxidant activity in all studied cases. The fractions separated by column chromatography were submitted to mass spectrometry analysis and the results were compared to others in the literature of natural products, mainly from Eucalyptus, and the characteristic bands of functional groups were identified by 1H-NMR and FTIR. These methods allowed the identification of 17 phenolic compounds.
Keywords: Eucalyptus globulus; antioxidant activity; black liquors; DPPH method; total phenolic content Eucalyptus globulus; antioxidant activity; black liquors; DPPH method; total phenolic content
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Faustino, H.; Gil, N.; Baptista, C.; Duarte, A.P. Antioxidant Activity of Lignin Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Kraft and Sulphite Black Liquors. Molecules 2010, 15, 9308-9322.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top