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The Pharmacokinetics of Raloxifene and Its Interaction with Apigenin in Rat
Key Laboratory of New Drug Delivery System of Chinese Materia Medica, Jiangsu Provincial Academy of Chinese Medicine, 100 Shizi Road, Nanjing 210028, China
Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, 1441 Moursund Street, Houston, TX 77030, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 October 2010; in revised form: 15 November 2010 / Accepted: 16 November 2010 / Published: 18 November 2010
Abstract: Purpose: Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator which is structurally similar to tamoxifen. As flavonoids can interact with raloxifene in vitro, we evaluated the in vivo pharmacokinetics of raloxifene in rats when co-administered with apigenin. Methods: The pharmacokinetics of raloxifene in the absence or presence of apigenin was investigated in rats after different dosage regimens. The plasma concentrations before and after enzymatic hydrolysis were analyzed by HPLC, and the pharmacokinetic profiles of raloxifene administered alone and in combination with apigenin were compared. Results: Co-administration of apigenin with raloxifene in a 1:2 ratio by weight resulted in a 55% and 37% increase in the Cmax and AUC of intact raloxifene, respectively. When equal proportions of raloxifene and apigenin (1:1) were administered, the Cmax and AUC of intact raloxifene were increased by 173% and 97% respectively. This increase in intact raloxifene was not associated with an increase in total raloxifene (intact plus conjugated raloxifene) because AUC and Cmax of total raloxifene when administered alone or in combination with apigenin were found to be similar. The results indicated that apigenin inhibited the glucuronidation and sulfation of raloxifene in the intestine bringing about an increased bioavailability of the drug. Conclusions: The results showed that apigenin decreased the first-pass metabolism of raloxifene but did not increase its absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.
Keywords: raloxifene; apigenin; pharmacokinetics; interaction; flavonoid; rats
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MDPI and ACS Style
Chen, Y.; Jia, X.; Chen, J.; Wang, J.; Hu, M. The Pharmacokinetics of Raloxifene and Its Interaction with Apigenin in Rat. Molecules 2010, 15, 8478-8487.
Chen Y, Jia X, Chen J, Wang J, Hu M. The Pharmacokinetics of Raloxifene and Its Interaction with Apigenin in Rat. Molecules. 2010; 15(11):8478-8487.
Chen, Yan; Jia, Xiaobin; Chen, Jian; Wang, Jinyan; Hu, Ming. 2010. "The Pharmacokinetics of Raloxifene and Its Interaction with Apigenin in Rat." Molecules 15, no. 11: 8478-8487.