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Nutraceutical Antioxidants as Novel Neuroprotective Agents
Department of Biological Sciences and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado 80208, USA
Research Service, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Denver, Colorado 80220, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 October 2010; Accepted: 20 October 2010 / Published: 3 November 2010
Abstract: A variety of antioxidant compounds derived from natural products (nutraceuticals) have demonstrated neuroprotective activity in either in vitro or in vivo models of neuronal cell death or neurodegeneration, respectively. These natural antioxidants fall into several distinct groups based on their chemical structures: (1) flavonoid polyphenols like epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) from green tea and quercetin from apples; (2) non-flavonoid polyphenols such as curcumin from tumeric and resveratrol from grapes; (3) phenolic acids or phenolic diterpenes such as rosmarinic acid or carnosic acid, respectively, both from rosemary; and (4) organosulfur compounds including the isothiocyanate, L-sulforaphane, from broccoli and the thiosulfonate allicin, from garlic. All of these compounds are generally considered to be antioxidants. They may be classified this way either because they directly scavenge free radicals or they indirectly increase endogenous cellular antioxidant defenses, for example, via activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) transcription factor pathway. Alternative mechanisms of action have also been suggested for the neuroprotective effects of these compounds such as modulation of signal transduction cascades or effects on gene expression. Here, we review the literature pertaining to these various classes of nutraceutical antioxidants and discuss their potential therapeutic value in neurodegenerative diseases.
Keywords: natural products; oxidative stress; neurodegeneration; neuronal apoptosis; reactive oxygen species
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MDPI and ACS Style
Kelsey, N.A.; Wilkins, H.M.; Linseman, D.A. Nutraceutical Antioxidants as Novel Neuroprotective Agents. Molecules 2010, 15, 7792-7814.
Kelsey NA, Wilkins HM, Linseman DA. Nutraceutical Antioxidants as Novel Neuroprotective Agents. Molecules. 2010; 15(11):7792-7814.
Kelsey, Natalie A.; Wilkins, Heather M.; Linseman, Daniel A. 2010. "Nutraceutical Antioxidants as Novel Neuroprotective Agents." Molecules 15, no. 11: 7792-7814.