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Calpain Inhibition Reduces Axolemmal Leakage in Traumatic Axonal Injury
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary
Department of Public Health, Institute of Applied Health Sciences University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 October 2009; in revised form: 26 November 2009 / Accepted: 4 December 2009 / Published: 9 December 2009
Abstract: Calcium-induced, calpain-mediated proteolysis (CMSP) has recently been implicated to the pathogenesis of diffuse (traumatic) axonal injury (TAI). Some studies suggested that subaxolemmal CMSP may contribute to axolemmal permeability (AP) alterations observed in TAI. Seeking direct evidence for this premise we investigated whether subaxolemmal CMSP may contribute to axolemmal permeability alterations (APA) and pre-injury calpain-inhibition could reduce AP in a rat model of TAI. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP, a tracer that accumulates in axons with APA) was administered one hour prior to injury into the lateral ventricle; 30 min preinjury a single tail vein bolus injection of 30 mg/kg MDL-28170 (a calpain inhibitor) or its vehicle was applied in Wistar rats exposed to impact acceleration brain injury. Histological detection of traumatically injured axonal segments accumulating HRP and statistical analysis revealed that pre-injury administration of the calpain inhibitor MDL-28170 significantly reduced the average length of HRP-labeled axonal segments. The axono-protective effect of pre-injury calpain inhibition recently demonstrated with classical immunohistochemical markers of TAI was further corroborated in this experiment; significant reduction of the length of labeled axons in the drug-treated rats implicate CMSP in the progression of altered AP in TAI.
Keywords: calpain; MDL-28170; traumatic axonal injury; traumatic brain injury
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Czeiter, E.; Büki, A.; Bukovics, P.; Farkas, O.; Pál, J.; Kövesdi, E.; Dóczi, T.; Sándor, J. Calpain Inhibition Reduces Axolemmal Leakage in Traumatic Axonal Injury. Molecules 2009, 14, 5115-5123.
Czeiter E, Büki A, Bukovics P, Farkas O, Pál J, Kövesdi E, Dóczi T, Sándor J. Calpain Inhibition Reduces Axolemmal Leakage in Traumatic Axonal Injury. Molecules. 2009; 14(12):5115-5123.
Czeiter, Endre; Büki, András; Bukovics, Péter; Farkas, Orsolya; Pál, József; Kövesdi, Erzsébet; Dóczi, Tamás; Sándor, János. 2009. "Calpain Inhibition Reduces Axolemmal Leakage in Traumatic Axonal Injury." Molecules 14, no. 12: 5115-5123.