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Biological and Pharmacological Activities of Squalene and Related Compounds: Potential Uses in Cosmetic Dermatology
Pharmaceutics Laboratory, Graduate Institute of Natural Products, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kweishan, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan
Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Sciences, Chang Gung University, Kweishan, Taoyuan, Taiwan
Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 January 2009; in revised form: 19 January 2009 / Accepted: 21 January 2009 / Published: 23 January 2009
Abstract: Squalene is a triterpene that is an intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. It was so named because of its occurrence in shark liver oil, which contains large quantities and is considered its richest source. However, it is widely distributed in nature, with reasonable amounts found in olive oil, palm oil, wheat-germ oil, amaranth oil, and rice bran oil. Squalene, the main component of skin surface polyunsaturated lipids, shows some advantages for the skin as an emollient and antioxidant, and for hydration and its antitumor activities. It is also used as a material in topically applied vehicles such as lipid emulsions and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). Substances related to squalene, including β-carotene, coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone) and vitamins A, E, and K, are also included in this review article to introduce their benefits to skin physiology. We summarize investigations performed in previous reports from both in vitro and in vivo models.
Keywords: Squalene; skin surface lipid; skin; antioxidant; topical delivery
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MDPI and ACS Style
Huang, Z.-R.; Lin, Y.-K.; Fang, J.-Y. Biological and Pharmacological Activities of Squalene and Related Compounds: Potential Uses in Cosmetic Dermatology. Molecules 2009, 14, 540-554.
Huang Z-R, Lin Y-K, Fang J-Y. Biological and Pharmacological Activities of Squalene and Related Compounds: Potential Uses in Cosmetic Dermatology. Molecules. 2009; 14(1):540-554.
Huang, Zih-Rou; Lin, Yin-Ku; Fang, Jia-You. 2009. "Biological and Pharmacological Activities of Squalene and Related Compounds: Potential Uses in Cosmetic Dermatology." Molecules 14, no. 1: 540-554.