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Fluorinated Analogs of Malachite Green: Synthesis and Toxicity
Iowa State University Department of Chemistry, Ames, IA 50011, USA
Iowa State University Department of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Ames, IA 50011, USA
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Department of Cancer Biology, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 March 2008; in revised form: 22 April 2008 / Accepted: 22 April 2008 / Published: 27 April 2008
Abstract: A series of fluorinated analogs of malachite green (MG) have been synthesizedand their toxicity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a human ovarian epithelial cell lineexamined. The toxicity profiles were found to be different for these two species. Twoanalogs, one with 2,4-difluoro substitution and the other with 2-fluoro substitution seem tobe the most promising analogs because they showed the lowest toxicity to the human cells.
Keywords: Malachite Green; Malachite Green analogs; Bathochromic shift; Toxicity; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; human ovarian epithelial cells.
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MDPI and ACS Style
Kraus, G.A.; Jeon, I.; Nilsen-Hamilton, M.; Awad, A.M.; Banerjee, J.; Parvin, B. Fluorinated Analogs of Malachite Green: Synthesis and Toxicity. Molecules 2008, 13, 986-994.
Kraus GA, Jeon I, Nilsen-Hamilton M, Awad AM, Banerjee J, Parvin B. Fluorinated Analogs of Malachite Green: Synthesis and Toxicity. Molecules. 2008; 13(4):986-994.
Kraus, George A.; Jeon, Insik; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit; Awad, Ahmed M.; Banerjee, Jayeeta; Parvin, Bahram. 2008. "Fluorinated Analogs of Malachite Green: Synthesis and Toxicity." Molecules 13, no. 4: 986-994.