Molecules 2008, 13(12), 3007-3032; doi:10.3390/molecules13123007
Review

Chemical Synthesis of Proanthocyanidins in Vitro and Their Reactions in Aging Wines

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Received: 15 November 2008; in revised form: 26 November 2008 / Accepted: 27 November 2008 / Published: 4 December 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolics and Polyphenolics)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Proanthocyanidins are present in many fruits and plant products like grapes and wine, and contribute to their taste and health benefits. In the past decades of years, substantial progresses has been achieved in the identification of composition and structure of proanthocyanidins, but the debate concerning the existence of an enzymatic or nonenzymatic mechanism for proanthocyanidin condensation still goes on. Substantial attention has been paid to elucidating the potential mechanism of formation by means of biomimetic and chemical synthesis in vitro. The present paper aims at summarizing the research status on chemical synthesis of proanthocyanidins, including non-enzymatic synthesis of proanthocyanidin precursors, chemical synthesis of proanthocyanidins with direct condensation of flavanols and stereoselective synthesis of proanthocyanidins. Proanthocyanidin-involved reactions in aging wines are also reviewed such as direct and indirect reactions among proanthocyanidins, flavanols and anthocyanins. Topics for future research in this field are also put forward in this paper.
Keywords: Proanthocyanidins; Condensed Tannins; Chemical Synthesis; Stereoselective Synthesis; Flavanols; Anthocyanins; Wine
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MDPI and ACS Style

He, F.; Pan, Q.-H.; Shi, Y.; Duan, C.-Q. Chemical Synthesis of Proanthocyanidins in Vitro and Their Reactions in Aging Wines. Molecules 2008, 13, 3007-3032.

AMA Style

He F, Pan Q-H, Shi Y, Duan C-Q. Chemical Synthesis of Proanthocyanidins in Vitro and Their Reactions in Aging Wines. Molecules. 2008; 13(12):3007-3032.

Chicago/Turabian Style

He, Fei; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Shi, Ying; Duan, Chang-Qing. 2008. "Chemical Synthesis of Proanthocyanidins in Vitro and Their Reactions in Aging Wines." Molecules 13, no. 12: 3007-3032.

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