Next Article in Journal
HPLC, NMR and MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Condensed Tannins from Lithocarpus glaber Leaves with Potent Free Radical Scavenging Activity
Previous Article in Journal
Enantioselective Synthesis of Homo-N-Nucleosides Containing a 1,4-Dioxane Sugar Analog
Molecules 2008, 13(12), 2975-2985; doi:10.3390/molecules13122975
Article

Berberine Suppresses TNF-α-induced MMP-9 and Cell Invasion through Inhibition of AP-1 Activity in MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells

1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 1,*  and 1,*
1 Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Kangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710, South Korea 2 Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 28 Yongon-dong, Chongno-gu, Seoul, South Korea
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 November 2008 / Revised: 25 November 2008 / Accepted: 26 November 2008 / Published: 3 December 2008
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1241 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014]   |  

Abstract

Invasion of cancer cell induced by matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is one of pivotal steps in cancer metastasis. Herein, we investigated how cell invasion was regulated by berberine (BBR), an isoquinoline derivative alkaloid compound, in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. The basal level of MMP-9 activity and expression was dose-dependently increased by TNF-α, while TNF-a-induced MMP-9 gelatinase activity and expression was decreased by BBR. To investigate regulatory mechanism of TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression, we pretreated cells with UO126 (MEK inhibitor), SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) and SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), respectively. Interestingly, TNF-α-induced MMP-9 activity and expression was decreased by UO126 and SB203580, but not by SP600125. Therefore, we further examined the effects of BBR on TNF-α-induced AP-1 DNA binding activity which is a downstream target of ERK and p38. Our data showed that TNF-α-induced AP-1 DNA binding activity was inhibited by BBR. Finally, we investigated the effect of BBR on TNF-α-induced cell invasion. TNF-α-induced cell invasion was significantly decreased by BBR treatment. Taken together, we suggest that TNF-α-induced MMP-9 expression and cell invasion are decreased by BBR through the suppression of AP-1 DNA binding activity in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.
Keywords: Berberine; AP-1; MMP-9; Cell invasion Berberine; AP-1; MMP-9; Cell invasion
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
RIS
MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, S.; Choi, J.H.; Kim, J.B.; Nam, S.J.; Yang, J.-H.; Kim, J.-H.; Lee, J.E. Berberine Suppresses TNF-α-induced MMP-9 and Cell Invasion through Inhibition of AP-1 Activity in MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells. Molecules 2008, 13, 2975-2985.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert