Molecules 2007, 12(3), 373-388; doi:10.3390/12030373
Article

Phase I and Phase II Ocular Metabolic Activities and the Role of Metabolism in Ophthalmic Prodrug and Codrug Design and Delivery

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 February 2007; in revised form: 5 February 2007 / Accepted: 5 February 2007 / Published: 8 March 2007
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prodrugs)
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Abstract: While the mammalian eye is seldom considered an organ of drug metabolism, the capacity for biotransformation is present. Compared to the liver, the metabolic capabilities of the eye are minuscule; however, phase I and phase II metabolic activities have been detected in various ocular structures. The careful consideration of ocular tissue metabolic processes within the eye has important implications for controlling the detoxification of therapeutic agents and for providing the potential for site-specific bio-activation of certain drug molecules, thus enabling significant improvements in drug efficacy and the minimization of side-effect from either local or systemic drug delivery to the eye. Knowledge of these processes is important to prodrug and codrug development and to researchers involved in the design, delivery and metabolism of ophthalmic drugs. This present article reviews the progress in ocular prodrug and codrug design and delivery in light of ocular metabolic activities.
Keywords: Ocular metabolism; drug delivery; drug design; phase I biotransformation; phase II biotransformation

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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Ghananeem, A.M.; Crooks, P.A. Phase I and Phase II Ocular Metabolic Activities and the Role of Metabolism in Ophthalmic Prodrug and Codrug Design and Delivery. Molecules 2007, 12, 373-388.

AMA Style

Al-Ghananeem AM, Crooks PA. Phase I and Phase II Ocular Metabolic Activities and the Role of Metabolism in Ophthalmic Prodrug and Codrug Design and Delivery. Molecules. 2007; 12(3):373-388.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al-Ghananeem, Abeer M.; Crooks, Peter A. 2007. "Phase I and Phase II Ocular Metabolic Activities and the Role of Metabolism in Ophthalmic Prodrug and Codrug Design and Delivery." Molecules 12, no. 3: 373-388.

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