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Molecules 2005, 10(9), 1145-1152; doi:10.3390/10091145

Oxidative Stress, Lipid Profile and Liver Functions in Average Egyptian Long Term Depo Medroxy Progesterone Acetate (DMPA) Users

1, 2, 1,*  and 1
1 Biochemistry Departments, Faculty of Pharmacy, El-Minia University, Egypt 2 Biochemistry Departments, Faculty of Medicine, El-Minia University, Egypt
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 April 2005 / Accepted: 30 September 2005 / Published: 30 September 2005
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Depo-medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA, Depo-Provera®) is used in morethan 80 countries as a long-acting contraceptive administered as a single intramuscular(i.m) injection of 150 mg/3 months. The present study was set up to investigate theeffects of DMPA on 80 average Egyptian women classified into four groups comprisingthose using the drug for one, two, three and four years, respectively, compared to acontrol group (N = 20) of married non-hormonally – treated women of similar ages. Thedrug showed a transient significant elevation of alanine aminotransferase activity (ALT)without an apparent effect on other liver indices, namely total bilirubin (T.Bil) level,aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. Only thelow density/high density lipoproteins cholesterol ratio (LDLC/HDLC) was gradually andnon-significantly (ns) increased in comparison to control group, however, neither totalcholesterol (TC) nor triglycerides (TG) were affected by the drug. The lipid peroxideproduct malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly elevated in an gradual manner with acorresponding decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), without any change in blood nitricoxide (NO) levels. It can be concluded that DMPA may be considered as a safecontraceptive medication for the studied group of women, but that special care should beexercised for cardiovascular, hepatic and other patients more sensitive to the harmfuleffects of free radicals. Alternatively, supportive medications are advisable for eachexposed case to secure against the possible irreversible adverse effects of the drug by continuous use. In addition, annual re-evaluation is much more advisable despite the proven safety of the drug.
Keywords: DMPA ; liver functions ; lipid profile ; lipid peroxidation ; glutathione and nitric oxide . DMPA; liver functions; lipid profile; lipid peroxidation; glutathione and nitric oxide .
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Faddah, L.; Al-Rehany, M.; Abdel-Hamid, N.; Bakeet, A. Oxidative Stress, Lipid Profile and Liver Functions in Average Egyptian Long Term Depo Medroxy Progesterone Acetate (DMPA) Users. Molecules 2005, 10, 1145-1152.

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