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Entropy, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2000), Pages 81-171

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Research

Open AccessArticle The Complex Information Process
Entropy 2000, 2(3), 81-97; doi:10.3390/e2030081
Received: 28 January 2000 / Accepted: 5 February 2000 / Published: 24 July 2000
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (57 KB)
Abstract
This paper examines the semiosic development of energy to information within a dyadic reality that operates within the contradictions of both classical and quantum physics. These two realities are examined within the three Peircean modal categories of Firstness, Secondness and Thirdness. The [...] Read more.
This paper examines the semiosic development of energy to information within a dyadic reality that operates within the contradictions of both classical and quantum physics. These two realities are examined within the three Peircean modal categories of Firstness, Secondness and Thirdness. The paper concludes that our world cannot operate within either of the two physical realities but instead filiates the two to permit a semiosis or information-generation of complex systems. Full article
Open AccessArticle Approach to a Quantitative Description of Social Systems Based on Thermodynamic Formalism
Entropy 2000, 2(3), 98-105; doi:10.3390/e2030098
Received: 11 February 2000 / Accepted: 14 July 2000 / Published: 28 July 2000
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (53 KB)
Abstract
Certain statistical aspects of social systems are described by appropriately defined quantities named social potentials. Relations between social potentials are postulated by drawing an analogy with thermodynamics relations between thermodynamic potentials, thus obtaining a toy model of some of the statistical properties [...] Read more.
Certain statistical aspects of social systems are described by appropriately defined quantities named social potentials. Relations between social potentials are postulated by drawing an analogy with thermodynamics relations between thermodynamic potentials, thus obtaining a toy model of some of the statistical properties of social systems. Within this model, an interpretation of a socially relevant acting (acting as opposed to action, see ref. [1]) that does not invoke structural changes in social systems, is given in terms of social po-tentials. Full article
Open AccessArticle Inquiries into the Nature of Free Energy and Entropy in Respect to Biochemical Thermodynamics
Entropy 2000, 2(3), 106-141; doi:10.3390/e2030106
Received: 2 May 2000 / Accepted: 29 July 2000 / Published: 9 August 2000
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (218 KB)
Abstract
Free energy and entropy are examined in detail from the standpoint of classical thermodynamics. The approach is logically based on the fact that thermodynamic work is mediated by thermal energy through the tendency for nonthermal energy to convert spontaneously into thermal energy [...] Read more.
Free energy and entropy are examined in detail from the standpoint of classical thermodynamics. The approach is logically based on the fact that thermodynamic work is mediated by thermal energy through the tendency for nonthermal energy to convert spontaneously into thermal energy and for thermal energy to distribute spontaneously and uniformly within the accessible space. The fact that free energy is a Second-Law, expendable energy that makes it possible for thermodynamic work to be done at finite rates is emphasized. Entropy, as originally defined, is pointed out to be the capacity factor for thermal energy that is hidden with respect to temperature; it serves to evaluate the practical quality of thermal energy and to account for changes in the amounts of latent thermal energies in systems maintained at constant temperature. With entropy thus operationally defined, it is possible to see that TDS° of the Gibbs standard free energy relation DG°= DH°-TDS° serves to account for differences or changes in nonthermal energies that do not contribute to DG° and that, since DH° serves to account for differences or changes in total energy, complete enthalpy-entropy (DH° - TDS°) compensation must invariably occur in isothermal processes for which TDS° is finite. A major objective was to clarify the means by which free energy is transferred and conserved in sequences of biological reactions coupled by freely diffusible intermediates. In achieving this objective it was found necessary to distinguish between a 'characteristic free energy' possessed by all First-Law energies in amounts equivalent to the amounts of the energies themselves and a 'free energy of concentration' that is intrinsically mechanical and relatively elusive in that it can appear to be free of First-Law energy. The findings in this regard serve to clarify the fact that the transfer of chemical potential energy from one repository to another along sequences of biological reactions of the above sort occurs through transfer of the First-Law energy as thermal energy and transfer of the Second-Law energy as free energy of concentration. Full article
Open AccessArticle Additive Cellular Automata and Volume Growth
Entropy 2000, 2(3), 142-167; doi:10.3390/e2030142
Received: 23 June 2000 / Accepted: 29 July 2000 / Published: 24 August 2000
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (270 KB)
Abstract
A class of dynamical systems associated to rings of S-integers in rational function fields is described. General results about these systems give a rather complete description of the well-known dynamics in one-dimensional additive cellular automata with prime alphabet, including simple formulæ for [...] Read more.
A class of dynamical systems associated to rings of S-integers in rational function fields is described. General results about these systems give a rather complete description of the well-known dynamics in one-dimensional additive cellular automata with prime alphabet, including simple formulæ for the topological entropy and the number of periodic configurations. For these systems the periodic points are uniformly distributed along some subsequence with respect to the maximal measure, and in particular are dense. Periodic points may be constructed arbitrarily close to a given configuration, and rationality of the dynamical zeta function is characterized. Throughout the emphasis is to place this particular family of cellular automata into the wider context of S-integer dynamical systems, and to show how the arithmetic of rational function fields determines their behaviour. Using a covering space the dynamics of additive cellular automata are related to a form of hyperbolicity in completions of rational function fields. This expresses the topological entropy of the automata directly in terms of volume growth in the covering space. Full article
Open AccessArticle Entropy In the Universe: A New Approach
Entropy 2000, 2(3), 168-171; doi:10.3390/e2030168
Received: 10 May 2000 / Accepted: 29 July 2000 / Published: 7 September 2000
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (27 KB)
Abstract
We propose a new definition of entropy for any mass m, based on gravitation and through the concept of a gravitational cross section. It turns out to be proportional to mass, and therefore extensive, and to the age of the Universe. It [...] Read more.
We propose a new definition of entropy for any mass m, based on gravitation and through the concept of a gravitational cross section. It turns out to be proportional to mass, and therefore extensive, and to the age of the Universe. It is a Machian approach. It is also the number of gravity quanta the mass has emitted through its age. The entropy of the Uni-verse is so determined and the cosmological entropy problem solved. Full article

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