Next Article in Journal
Unsupervised Symbolization of Signal Time Series for Extraction of the Embedded Information
Next Article in Special Issue
Entropy in Investigation of Vasovagal Syndrome in Passive Head Up Tilt Test
Previous Article in Journal
The Many Classical Faces of Quantum Structures
Previous Article in Special Issue
Discrepancies between Conventional Multiscale Entropy and Modified Short-Time Multiscale Entropy of Photoplethysmographic Pulse Signals in Middle- and Old- Aged Individuals with or without Diabetes
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Entropy 2017, 19(4), 145; doi:10.3390/e19040145

Multiscale Cross-Approximate Entropy Analysis of Bilateral Fingertips Photoplethysmographic Pulse Amplitudes among Middle-to-Old Aged Individuals with or without Type 2 Diabetes

1
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Dong-Hwa University, Hualien 97401, Taiwan
2
Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Buddhist Tzu-Chi General Hospital, Hualien 970, Taiwan
3
Departments of Medicine, Hualien Armed Forces General Hospital, Hualien 970, Taiwan
4
Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan
5
Department of Physics, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta 55164, Indonesia
6
Department of Emergency Medicine, E-Da Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 840, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Herbert Jelinek
Received: 30 January 2017 / Revised: 27 March 2017 / Accepted: 28 March 2017 / Published: 30 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Cardiac Physics II)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [897 KB, uploaded 31 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

Multiscale cross-approximate entropy (MC-ApEn) between two different physiological signals could evaluate cardiovascular health in diabetes. Whether MC-ApEn analysis between two similar signals such as photoplethysmographic (PPG) pulse amplitudes of bilateral fingertips can reflect diabetes status is unknown. From a middle-to-old-aged population free of prior cardiovascular disease, we selected the unaffected (no type 2 diabetes, n = 36), the well-controlled diabetes (glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) < 8%, n = 30), and the poorly- controlled diabetes (HbA1c ≥ 8%, n = 26) groups. MC-ApEn indexes were calculated from simultaneous consecutive 1500 PPG pulse amplitudes signals of bilateral index fingertips. The average of scale factors 1–5 (MC-ApEnSS) and of scale factors 6–10 (MC-ApEnLS) were defined as the small- and large-scales MC-ApEn, respectively. The MC-ApEnLS index was highest in the unaffected, followed by the well-controlled diabetes, and then the poorly-controlled diabetes (0.70, 0.62, and 0.53; all paired p-values were <0.05); in contrast, the MC-ApEnSS index did not differ between groups. Our findings suggested that the bilateral fingertips large-scale MC-ApEnLS index of PPG pulse amplitudes might be able to evaluate the glycemic status and detect subtle vascular disease in type 2 diabetes. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiscale cross-approximate entropy; photoplethysmographic wave amplitudes; type 2 diabetes multiscale cross-approximate entropy; photoplethysmographic wave amplitudes; type 2 diabetes
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, H.-T.; Yang, C.-C.; Lin, G.-M.; Haryadi, B.; Chu, S.-C.; Yang, C.-M.; Sun, C.-K. Multiscale Cross-Approximate Entropy Analysis of Bilateral Fingertips Photoplethysmographic Pulse Amplitudes among Middle-to-Old Aged Individuals with or without Type 2 Diabetes. Entropy 2017, 19, 145.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Entropy EISSN 1099-4300 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top