Next Article in Journal
Misleading Reference
Next Article in Special Issue
Sub-Quantum Thermodynamics as a Basis of Emergent Quantum Mechanics
Previous Article in Journal
Entropy and Phase Coexistence in Clusters: Metals vs. Nonmetals
Previous Article in Special Issue
Emergence of Animals from Heat Engines – Part 1. Before the Snowball Earths
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Entropy 2010, 12(6), 1325-1343; doi:10.3390/e12061325

Cultural Naturalism

1,2,3,* and 4,*
Department of Biosciences, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
Institute of Biotechnology, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
Department of Physics, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
Biological Sciences, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13754, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 February 2010 / Revised: 24 March 2010 / Accepted: 28 April 2010 / Published: 26 May 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [281 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]   |  


Culture can be viewed as the means by which a society can live in its surroundings by acquiring and consuming free energy. This naturalistic notion assumes that everything can be valued in terms of energy, hence also social changes can be described as natural processes that are influenced by the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics. This universal law, when formulated as an equation of motion, reveals that societies emerge, evolve and eventually extinguish after tapping, exploiting and finally depleting their resources, which we can say are ultimately valued in energetic terms. The analysis reveals that trajectories of societies are, however, inherently non-integrable, i.e., unpredictable in detail because free energy as the driving force, being finite, is inseparable from the flows of energy. Nonetheless, the universal tendency to diminish energy differences within a system and with respect to its surroundings in the least possible time gives rise to highly economical but seemingly immaterial means of energy transduction that associate with cultural codes, habits, traditions, taboos and values. Moreover, cultural naturalism clarifies that identities develop and mature in interactions, and that class structure results from the quest for maximum entropy partition. While social changes in complex societies are inherently intractable, the profound principle allows us to recognize universal tendencies in diverse cultural characteristics, and to rationalize prospects for the future.
Keywords: entropy; free energy; hierarchy; evolution; natural process; natural selection; statistical physics; thermodynamics entropy; free energy; hierarchy; evolution; natural process; natural selection; statistical physics; thermodynamics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Annila, A.; Salthe, S. Cultural Naturalism. Entropy 2010, 12, 1325-1343.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Entropy EISSN 1099-4300 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top