Entropy 2009, 11(3), 463-512; doi:10.3390/e11030463
Article

Emergence of Animals from Heat Engines – Part 1. Before the Snowball Earths

Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, 1090GE Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Received: 20 August 2009; Accepted: 15 September 2009 / Published: 18 September 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics)
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Abstract: The origin of life has previously been modeled by biological heat engines driven by thermal cycling, caused by suspension in convecting water. Here more complex heat engines are invoked to explain the origin of animals in the thermal gradient above a submarine hydrothermal vent. Thermal cycling by a filamentous protein ‘thermotether’ was the result of a temperature-gradient induced relaxation oscillation not impeded by the low Reynolds number of a small scale. During evolution a ‘flagellar proton pump’ emerged that resembled Feynman’s ratchet and that turned into today’s bacterial flagellar motor. An emerged ‘flagellar computer’ functioning as Turing machine implemented chemotaxis.
Keywords: evolution; flagellar motor; Feynman’s ratchet; non-equilibrium thermodynamics; Reynolds Number; Snowball Earth; thermosynthesis; Turing machine

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MDPI and ACS Style

Muller, A.W.J. Emergence of Animals from Heat Engines – Part 1. Before the Snowball Earths. Entropy 2009, 11, 463-512.

AMA Style

Muller AWJ. Emergence of Animals from Heat Engines – Part 1. Before the Snowball Earths. Entropy. 2009; 11(3):463-512.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Muller, Anthonie W. J. 2009. "Emergence of Animals from Heat Engines – Part 1. Before the Snowball Earths." Entropy 11, no. 3: 463-512.

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