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Special Issue "Superplasticity and Superplastic Forming"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2011)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Wei Sun (Website)

Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineerin, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
Phone: 0115 951 3809
Fax: 0115 951 3800
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Thomas H. Hyde (Website)

Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
Fax: +44 115 9513800

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview Boronization and Carburization of Superplastic Stainless Steel and Titanium-Based Alloys
Materials 2011, 4(7), 1309-1320; doi:10.3390/ma4071309
Received: 28 June 2011 / Accepted: 12 July 2011 / Published: 18 July 2011
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2072 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bronization and carburization of fine-grain superplastic stainless steel is reviewed, and new experimental results for fine grain Ti88.5Al4.5V3Fe2Mo2 are reported. In superplastic duplex stainless steel, the diffusion of carbon and boron is faster [...] Read more.
Bronization and carburization of fine-grain superplastic stainless steel is reviewed, and new experimental results for fine grain Ti88.5Al4.5V3Fe2Mo2 are reported. In superplastic duplex stainless steel, the diffusion of carbon and boron is faster than in non-superplastic duplex stainless steel. Further, diffusion is activated by uniaxial compressive stress. Moreover, non-superplastic duplex stainless steel shows typical grain boundary diffusion; however, inner grain diffusion is confirmed in superplastic stainless steel. The presence of Fe and Cr carbides or borides is confirmed by X-ray diffraction, which indicates that the diffused carbon and boron react with the Fe and Cr in superplastic stainless steel. The Vickers hardness of the carburized and boronized layers is similar to that achieved with other surface treatments such as electro-deposition. Diffusion of boron into the superplastic Ti88.5Al4.5V3Fe2Mo2 alloy was investigated. The hardness of the surface exposed to boron powder can be increased by annealing above the superplastic temperature. However, the Vickers hardness is lower than that of Ti boride. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superplasticity and Superplastic Forming)
Open AccessReview Cavitation During Superplastic Forming
Materials 2011, 4(7), 1271-1286; doi:10.3390/ma4071271
Received: 13 May 2011 / Accepted: 15 June 2011 / Published: 8 July 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (697 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cavitation is the opening of pores during superplastic forming, typically at grain boundary triple points or on second phase grain boundary particles during slip of grain boundaries. Theories for the initiation of cavitation are reviewed. It seems that cavitation is unlikely to [...] Read more.
Cavitation is the opening of pores during superplastic forming, typically at grain boundary triple points or on second phase grain boundary particles during slip of grain boundaries. Theories for the initiation of cavitation are reviewed. It seems that cavitation is unlikely to occur by processes intrinsic to metals such as dislocation mechanisms or point defect condensation. It is proposed that cavitation can only occur at non-bonded interfaces such as those introduced extrinsically (i.e., from the outside) during the original casting of the metal. These defects, known as oxide bifilms, are naturally introduced during pouring of the liquid metal, and are frozen into the solid, often pushed by dendritic growth into grain boundaries where they are difficult to detect because of their extreme thinness, often measured in nanometres. Their unbonded central interface acts as a crack and can initiate cavitation. Second phase precipitates probably do not nucleate and grow on grain boundaries but grow on bifilms in the boundaries, explaining the apparent association between boundaries, second phase particles and failure initiation. Improved melting and casting techniques can provide metal with reduced or zero bifilm population for which cavitation would not be possible, promising significant improvements in superplastic behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superplasticity and Superplastic Forming)
Open AccessReview Micrograin Superplasticity: Characteristics and Utilization
Materials 2011, 4(7), 1194-1223; doi:10.3390/ma4061194
Received: 16 May 2011 / Revised: 7 June 2011 / Accepted: 16 June 2011 / Published: 1 July 2011
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1872 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Micrograin Superplasticity refers to the ability of fine-grained materials (1 µm < d < 10 μm, where d is the grain size) to exhibit extensive neck-free elongations during deformation at elevated temperatures. Over the past three decades, good progress has been made in rationalizing this phenomenon. The present paper provides a brief review on this progress in several areas that have been related to: (a) the mechanical characteristics of micrograin superplasticity and their origin; (b) the effect of impurity content and type on deformation behavior, boundary sliding, and cavitation during superplastic deformation; (c) the formation of cavity stringers; (d) dislocation activities and role during superplastic flow; and (e) the utilization of superplasticity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superplasticity and Superplastic Forming)

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