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Special Issue "Surface Forces and Thin Liquid Films"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Structure Analysis and Characterization".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jordi Faraudo

Materials Simulation and Theory Department Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC) Campus de la UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: soft matter; self-assembly; theory of colloidal forces; computer simulations

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Thin liquid films are present everywhere, from our soap bubbles to our beer head. The properties of thin liquid films fascinated scientists like Newton and Hooke, and still fascinate us today. Since the advent of the Derjaguin, Landau, Vervey and Overbeek (DLVO) theory of colloidal forces, we know that thin liquid films play a decisive role in the understanding of many kinds of disperse systems. Now, novel experimental techniques developed for materials science can be applied to gain access to hidden aspects of these systems. Additionally, powerful computer simulation techniques can be applied to relate the observed behavior to molecular details. The deep origin of the surface forces can be better accessed than ever before. All these powerful techniques, from Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to molecular dynamics, are changing our view of liquids thin films and the surface forces that govern their stability. In addition, they are dramatically increasing our ability to control, predict and design the properties of liquid thin films, with a deep impact in their industrial applications.

It is our pleasure to invite you to submit a manuscript for this Special Issue. Full papers, short communications, and reviews are all welcome.

Jordi Faraudo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Stability of Thin Films
  • Fundamental Aspects of Surface Forces and Disjoining Pressure
  • Soap Films: Newton and Common Black Films
  • Computer Simulation of Thin Liquid Films
  • Microscopic Origin of Forces in Thin Liquid Films
  • Dewetting and Capillary Phenomena
  • Electrolytes and Stability of Thin Films
  • Lipids and Thin Liquid Films

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Molecular Dynamics Study of Self-Assembly of Aqueous Solutions of Poly[9,9-bis(4-Sulfonylbutoxyphenylphenyl) Fluorene-2,7-diyl-2,2’-Bithiophene] (PBS-PF2T) in the Presence of Pentaethylene Glycol Monododecyl Ether (C12E5)
Materials 2016, 9(5), 379; doi:10.3390/ma9050379
Received: 31 January 2016 / Revised: 9 May 2016 / Accepted: 10 May 2016 / Published: 18 May 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Results are presented using molecular dynamics (MD) of the self-assembly of the conjugated polyelectrolyte poly[9,9-bis(4-sulfonylbutoxyphenylphenyl) fluorene-2,7-diyl-2,2’-bithiophene] (PBS-PF2T) with 680 mM pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12E5) in water. Simulations are used to examine the interaction between PBS-PF2T and C12
[...] Read more.
Results are presented using molecular dynamics (MD) of the self-assembly of the conjugated polyelectrolyte poly[9,9-bis(4-sulfonylbutoxyphenylphenyl) fluorene-2,7-diyl-2,2’-bithiophene] (PBS-PF2T) with 680 mM pentaethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12E5) in water. Simulations are used to examine the interaction between PBS-PF2T and C12E5 and suggest a break-up of PBS-PF2T aggregates in solution. These systems are dominated by the formation of cylindrical phases at temperatures between 0 °C and 20 °C and also between 45 °C and 90 °C. More diffuse phases are seen to occur between 20 °C and 45 °C and also above 90 °C. Simulations are related to previous computational and experimental studies on PBS-PF2T aggregation in the presence of tetraethylene glycol monododecyl ether (C12E4) in bulk and thin films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Forces and Thin Liquid Films)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Specific Ion Effects in Cholesterol Monolayers
Materials 2016, 9(5), 340; doi:10.3390/ma9050340
Received: 29 February 2016 / Revised: 11 April 2016 / Accepted: 29 April 2016 / Published: 5 May 2016
PDF Full-text (4205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The interaction of ions with interfaces and, in particular, the high specificity of these interactions to the particular ions considered, are central questions in the field of surface forces. Here we study the effect of different salts (NaI, NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl
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The interaction of ions with interfaces and, in particular, the high specificity of these interactions to the particular ions considered, are central questions in the field of surface forces. Here we study the effect of different salts (NaI, NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2) on monolayers made of cholesterol molecules, both experimentally (surface area vs. lateral pressure isotherms measured by a Langmuir Film Balance) and theoretically (molecular dynamics (MD) all-atomic simulations). We found that surface isotherms depend, both quantitatively and qualitatively, on the nature of the ions by altering the shape and features of the isotherm. In line with the experiments, MD simulations show clear evidences of specific ionic effects and also provide molecular level details on ion specific interactions with cholesterol. More importantly, MD simulations show that the interaction of a particular ion with the surface depends strongly on its counterion, a feature ignored so far in most theories of specific ionic effects in surface forces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Forces and Thin Liquid Films)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Structural Interpretation of the Large Slowdown of Water Dynamics at Stacked Phospholipid Membranes for Decreasing Hydration Level: All-Atom Molecular Dynamics
Materials 2016, 9(5), 319; doi:10.3390/ma9050319
Received: 3 March 2016 / Revised: 18 April 2016 / Accepted: 21 April 2016 / Published: 27 April 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (5427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hydration water determines the stability and function of phospholipid membranes as well as the interaction of membranes with other molecules. Experiments and simulations have shown that water dynamics slows down dramatically as the hydration decreases, suggesting that the interfacial water that dominates the
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Hydration water determines the stability and function of phospholipid membranes as well as the interaction of membranes with other molecules. Experiments and simulations have shown that water dynamics slows down dramatically as the hydration decreases, suggesting that the interfacial water that dominates the average dynamics at low hydration is slower than water away from the membrane. Here, based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we provide an interpretation of the slowdown of interfacial water in terms of the structure and dynamics of water–water and water–lipid hydrogen bonds (HBs). We calculate the rotational and translational slowdown of the dynamics of water confined in stacked phospholipid membranes at different levels of hydration, from completely hydrated to poorly hydrated membranes. For all hydrations, we analyze the distribution of HBs and find that water–lipids HBs last longer than water–water HBs and that at low hydration most of the water is in the interior of the membrane. We also show that water–water HBs become more persistent as the hydration is lowered. We attribute this effect (i) to HBs between water molecules that form, in turn, persistent HBs with lipids; (ii) to the hindering of the H-bonding switching between water molecules due to the lower water density at the interface; and (iii) to the higher probability of water–lipid HBs as the hydration decreases. Our interpretation of the large dynamic slowdown in water under dehydration is potentially relevant in understanding membrane biophysics at different hydration levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Forces and Thin Liquid Films)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Bendable Circuits on a Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Surface by Inkjet Printing Semi-Wrapped Structures
Materials 2016, 9(4), 253; doi:10.3390/ma9040253
Received: 14 February 2016 / Revised: 18 March 2016 / Accepted: 21 March 2016 / Published: 30 March 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3724 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this work, an effective method was developed to fabricate bendable circuits on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface by inkjet printing semi-wrapped structures. It is demonstrated that the precured PDMS liquid film could influence the depositing morphology of coalesced silver precursor inkjet droplets. Accordingly,
[...] Read more.
In this work, an effective method was developed to fabricate bendable circuits on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface by inkjet printing semi-wrapped structures. It is demonstrated that the precured PDMS liquid film could influence the depositing morphology of coalesced silver precursor inkjet droplets. Accordingly, continuous and uniform lines with a semi-wrapped structure were fabricated on the PDMS surface. When the printed silver precursor was reduced to Ag nanoparticles, the fabricated conductive film exhibited good transparency and high bendability. This work presented a facile way to fabricate flexible patterns on a PDMS surface without any complicated modification or special equipment. Meanwhile, an in situ hydrazine reduction of Ag has been reported using the vapor phase method in the fabricating process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Forces and Thin Liquid Films)
Figures

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Image Charge Effects in the Wetting Behavior of Alkanes on Water with Accounting for Water Solubility
Materials 2016, 9(3), 177; doi:10.3390/ma9030177
Received: 4 January 2016 / Revised: 28 February 2016 / Accepted: 29 February 2016 / Published: 8 March 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1830 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Different types of surface forces, acting in the films of pentane, hexane, and heptane on water are discussed. It is shown that an important contribution to the surface forces originates from the solubility of water in alkanes. The equations for the distribution of
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Different types of surface forces, acting in the films of pentane, hexane, and heptane on water are discussed. It is shown that an important contribution to the surface forces originates from the solubility of water in alkanes. The equations for the distribution of electric potential inside the film are derived within the Debye-Hückel approximation, taking into account the polarization of the film boundaries by discrete charges at water-alkane interface and by the dipoles of water molecules dissolved in the film. On the basis of above equations we estimate the image charge contribution to the surface forces, excess free energy, isotherms of water adsorption in alkane film, and the total isotherms of disjoining pressure in alkane film. The results indicate the essential influence of water/alkane interface charging on the disjoining pressure in alkane films, and the wettability of water surface by different alkanes is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Forces and Thin Liquid Films)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Effect of Ionic Correlations on the Surface Forces in Thin Liquid Films: Influence of Multivalent Coions and Extended Theory
Materials 2016, 9(3), 145; doi:10.3390/ma9030145
Received: 25 January 2016 / Revised: 18 February 2016 / Accepted: 19 February 2016 / Published: 1 March 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3426 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Experimental data for the disjoining pressure of foam films stabilized by anionic surfactant in the presence of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 2:2 electrolytes: NaCl, Na2SO4, Na3Citrate, and MgSO4 are reported. The disjoining pressure predicted by the
[...] Read more.
Experimental data for the disjoining pressure of foam films stabilized by anionic surfactant in the presence of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 2:2 electrolytes: NaCl, Na2SO4, Na3Citrate, and MgSO4 are reported. The disjoining pressure predicted by the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory coincides with the experimental data in the case of a 1:1 electrolyte, but it is considerably greater than the measured pressure in all other cases. The theory is extended to account for the effects of ionic correlations and finite ionic radii. Original analytical expressions are derived for the local activity coefficient, electrostatic disjoining pressure, and asymptotic screening parameter. With the same parameter of counterion binding as for a 1:1 electrolyte, the curves predicted by the extended theory are in perfect agreement with the experimental data for 1:2 and 1:3 electrolytes. In comparison with the DLVO theory, the effect of ionic correlations leads to more effective screening of electrostatic interactions, and lower electric potential and counterion concentrations in the film’s midplane, resulting in lower disjoining pressure, as experimentally observed. The developed theory is applicable to both multivalent coions and multivalent counterions. Its application could remove some discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in studies with liquid films from electrolyte solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Forces and Thin Liquid Films)

Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Imaging Water Thin Films in Ambient Conditions Using Atomic Force Microscopy
Materials 2016, 9(3), 182; doi:10.3390/ma9030182
Received: 20 January 2016 / Revised: 1 March 2016 / Accepted: 2 March 2016 / Published: 9 March 2016
PDF Full-text (10175 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
All surfaces exposed to ambient conditions are covered by a thin film of water. Other than at high humidity conditions, i.e., relative humidity higher than 80%, those water films have nanoscale thickness. Nevertheless, even the thinnest film can profoundly affect the physical
[...] Read more.
All surfaces exposed to ambient conditions are covered by a thin film of water. Other than at high humidity conditions, i.e., relative humidity higher than 80%, those water films have nanoscale thickness. Nevertheless, even the thinnest film can profoundly affect the physical and chemical properties of the substrate. Information on the structure of these water films can be obtained from spectroscopic techniques based on photons, but these usually have poor lateral resolution. When information with nanometer resolution in the three dimensions is needed, for example for surfaces showing heterogeneity in water affinity at the nanoscale, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is the preferred tool since it can provide such resolution while being operated in ambient conditions. A complication in the interpretation of the data arises when using AFM, however, since, in most cases, direct interaction between a solid probe and a solid surface occurs. This induces strong perturbations of the liquid by the probe that should be controlled or avoided. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of different AFM methods developed to overcome this problem, measuring different interactions between the AFM probe and the water films, and to discuss the type of information about the water film that can be obtained from these interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Forces and Thin Liquid Films)
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