Previous Article in Journal
Gamification Concepts to Promote and Maintain Therapy Adherence in Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
J 2018, 1(1), 81-93; https://doi.org/10.3390/j1010009

History of Non-Fatal Physical Assault Is Associated with Premature Mortality for Whites but Not Blacks

1
Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2700, USA
2
Center for Research on Ethnicity, Culture and Health, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2700, USA
3
Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program (UROP), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2700, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [247 KB, uploaded 10 September 2018]

Abstract

Exposure to trauma increases the long-term risk of mortality, and experiencing non-fatal physical assault is not an exception. To better understand population heterogeneity in this link, the current study explored Black–White differences in the association between history of non-fatal physical assault and risk of all-cause mortality over a 25-year period in the United States. Data came from the Americans’ Changing Lives (ACL) study that followed 3617 non-institutionalized respondents for up to 25 years. History of non-fatal physical assault at baseline was the predictor. Outcome was time to death due to all-cause mortality during follow-up from baseline (1986) to follow-up (2011). Confounders included gender, age, and baseline socio-economic status (education and income), health behaviors (smoking and drinking), and health status (chronic medical conditions, self-rated health, and body mass index). Race was the moderator. Cox regressions were used for multi-variable analysis. History of non-fatal physical assault at baseline was associated with an increased risk of mortality, above and beyond baseline socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and health status. Race interacted with history of non-fatal physical assault on mortality, suggesting a stronger effect for Whites compared to Blacks. In race-specific models, history of non-fatal physical assault was associated with risk of mortality for Whites but not Blacks. The current study showed that experiencing non-fatal physical assault increases the risk of premature death above and beyond demographics, socioeconomic status, health behaviors, and health status. Experiencing non-fatal physical assault may have a larger effect on premature mortality among Whites than Blacks. Future research is needed on how Blacks and Whites differ in the health consequences of social adversities. View Full-Text
Keywords: trauma; assault; ethnic groups; all-cause mortality; race; blacks trauma; assault; ethnic groups; all-cause mortality; race; blacks
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Assari, S.; Haidar, J. History of Non-Fatal Physical Assault Is Associated with Premature Mortality for Whites but Not Blacks. J 2018, 1, 81-93.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
J EISSN 2571-8800 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top