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J, Volume 1, Issue 1 (September 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Educational Attainment Promotes Fruit and Vegetable Intake for Whites but Not Blacks
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 16 May 2018 / Accepted: 1 June 2018 / Published: 3 June 2018
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Abstract
Background. Although the protective effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on health behaviors are well-known, according to the minorities’ diminished return theory, the health return of SES, particularly educational attainment, is systemically smaller for minorities than Whites. Aims. The current study explored Black–White
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Background. Although the protective effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on health behaviors are well-known, according to the minorities’ diminished return theory, the health return of SES, particularly educational attainment, is systemically smaller for minorities than Whites. Aims. The current study explored Black–White differences in the effects of educational attainment and income on the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Methods. This cross-sectional study used the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2017 (n = 3217). HINTS is a nationally representative survey of American adults. The current analysis included 2277 adults who were either non-Hispanic White (n = 1868; 82%) or non-Hispanic Black (n = 409; 18%). The independent variables in this study were SES (educational attainment and income). The dependent variable was consumption of fruits and vegetables. Race was the focal moderator. Results. In the overall sample, high educational attainment and income were associated with higher consumption of fruits and vegetables. Race moderated the effect of educational attainment but not income on the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Conclusion. In line with the past research in the United States, Whites constantly gain more health benefits from the very same educational attainment than Blacks. The health gain from income is more equal across races than the health gain from educational attainment. Such diminished returns may be due to racism across institutions in the United States. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Octyl Gallate as an Intervention Catalyst to Augment Antifungal Efficacy of Caspofungin
Received: 1 May 2018 / Revised: 15 May 2018 / Accepted: 18 May 2018 / Published: 23 May 2018
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Abstract
Filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus spp. are opportunistic pathogens, which cause highly invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Control of such fungal pathogens is increasingly problematic due to the small number of effective drugs available for treatment. Moreover, the increased incidence of fungal
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Filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus spp. are opportunistic pathogens, which cause highly invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Control of such fungal pathogens is increasingly problematic due to the small number of effective drugs available for treatment. Moreover, the increased incidence of fungal resistance to antifungal agents makes this problem a global human health issue. The cell wall integrity system of fungi is the target of antimycotic drugs echinocandins, such as caspofungin (CAS). However, echinocandins cannot completely inhibit the growth of filamentous fungal pathogens, which results in survival/escape of fungi during treatment. Chemosensitization was developed as an alternative intervention strategy, where co-application of CAS with the intervention catalyst octyl gallate (OG; chemosensitizer) greatly enhanced CAS efficacy, thus achieved ≥99.9% elimination of filamentous fungi in vitro. Based on hypersensitive responses of Aspergillus antioxidant mutants to OG, it is hypothesized that, besides destabilizing cell wall integrity, the redox-active characteristic of OG may further debilitate the fungal antioxidant system. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Enhancing Mentorship in Psychiatry and Health Sciences: A Study Investigating Needs and Preferences in the Development of a Mentoring Program
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 19 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
Preferences for the delivery of department-led mentorship programs are important to understanding and closing the gap between mentorship need and mentorship actualization. The objective of this paper is to, therefore, describe the perceived needs and barriers to mentorship in a postgraduate psychiatry program
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Preferences for the delivery of department-led mentorship programs are important to understanding and closing the gap between mentorship need and mentorship actualization. The objective of this paper is to, therefore, describe the perceived needs and barriers to mentorship in a postgraduate psychiatry program through separate mixed-methods surveys for psychiatry residents and health sciences faculty at a Canadian University. The surveys explored (1) the prevalence of mentorship, (2) barriers to adequate mentorship, and (3) program initiatives that could address these barriers. Qualitative responses were analyzed using an inductive analytic approach. The results of both surveys revealed that while psychiatry residents and faculty believed mentorship to be important for career success, fewer than half of residents (33%) or faculty (47%) reported receiving mentorship in the department. Residents and faculty ranked lack of exposure to mentorship, and lack of time as their top barrier to mentorship, respectively. The following components of a mentorship program were described as ideal: (1) the ability to choose one's own mentor, (2) training sessions for mentors, and (3) faculty mentoring webpage profiles to facilitate the matching of interests. Respondents suggested that mentoring program developers should foster a culture encouraging mentorship, seek mentors outside of regular program-related supervision, allow mentees to choose a mentor, and establishing structure, through aligning expectations and goal setting in mentoring relationships. There is a gap between desire for mentorship and actualization. Program developers in psychiatry medical education may choose to incorporate these findings to enhance mentorship. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication Alternative Approaches to the Search for Alzheimer’s Disease Treatments
Received: 15 February 2018 / Revised: 21 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
Clinical trials of drugs for Alzheimer’s disease have called into question the role of amyloid in the disease. The reasons several drugs recently failed clinical trials for Alzheimer’s disease are presented. An alternative approach with a traditional plant medicine is discussed. The pharmacology
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Clinical trials of drugs for Alzheimer’s disease have called into question the role of amyloid in the disease. The reasons several drugs recently failed clinical trials for Alzheimer’s disease are presented. An alternative approach with a traditional plant medicine is discussed. The pharmacology of the phytochemicals found in the plant medicine is provided. Full article
Open AccessEditorial J—A Multidisciplinary Open Access Journal to Accelerate Scientific Communication
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
At its best, academic publishing facilitates the communication of the latest research results, accelerates sharing new and verified knowledge, and creates synergies between researchers in answering society’s most fundamental questions.[...] Full article
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