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Quaternary 2018, 1(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/quat1010002

Holocene Hydroclimate Variability in Central Scandinavia Inferred from Flood Layers in Contourite Drift Deposits in Lake Storsjön

1
Department of Geology, Lund University, Sölvegatan 12, 223 62 Lund, Sweden
2
Laboratoire GEODE, UMR 5602 CNRS-Université Toulouse Jean Jaurès, Maison de la Recherche, 5 Allée Antonio Machado, 31058 Toulouse, France
3
Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research (IOW), Marine Geology, 18119 Rostock-Warnemünde, Germany
4
Laboratoire de Mesure du Carbone 14 (LMC14), LSCE/IPSL, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
5
Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement (LSCE/IPSL), UMR 8212 (CEA/CNRS/UVSQ), Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 28 January 2018 / Published: 6 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Quaternary)
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Abstract

Despite the societal importance of extreme hydroclimate events, few palaeoenvironmental studies of Scandinavian lake sediments have investigated flood occurrences. Here we present a flood history based on lithological, geochemical and mineral magnetic records of a Holocene sediment sequence collected from contourite drift deposits in Lake Storsjön (63.12° N, 14.37° E). After the last deglaciation, the lake began to form around 9800 cal yr BP, but glacial activity persisted in the catchment for ~250 years. Element concentrations and mineral magnetic properties of the sediments indicate relatively stable sedimentation conditions during the Holocene. However, human impact in the form of expanding agriculture is evident from about 1100 cal yr BP, and intensified in the 20th century. Black layers containing iron sulphide appear irregularly throughout the sequence. The increased influx of organic matter during flood events led to decomposition and oxygen consumption, and eventually to anoxic conditions in the interstitial water preserving these layers. Elevated frequencies of black layer occurrence between 3600 and 1800 cal yr BP reflect vegetation changes in the catchment as well as large-scale climatic change. Soil erosion during snowmelt flood events increased with a tree line descent since the onset of the neoglacial period (~4000 cal yr BP). The peak in black layer occurrence coincides with a prominent solar minimum ~2600 cal yr BP, which may have accentuated the observed pattern due to the prevalence of a negative NAO index, a longer snow accumulation period and consequently stronger snowmelt floods. View Full-Text
Keywords: lake sediments; palaeo-floods; hydroclimate; deglaciation; black layers; contourite; seismic profile; X-ray fluorescence; environmental magnetism; Holocene; Sweden lake sediments; palaeo-floods; hydroclimate; deglaciation; black layers; contourite; seismic profile; X-ray fluorescence; environmental magnetism; Holocene; Sweden
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Labuhn, I.; Hammarlund, D.; Chapron, E.; Czymzik, M.; Dumoulin, J.-P.; Nilsson, A.; Régnier, E.; Robygd, J.; von Grafenstein, U. Holocene Hydroclimate Variability in Central Scandinavia Inferred from Flood Layers in Contourite Drift Deposits in Lake Storsjön. Quaternary 2018, 1, 2.

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