Next Article in Journal
One- and Two-Equation Models to Simulate Ion Transport in Charged Porous Electrodes
Previous Article in Journal
Composite Foaming Agents on the Basis of High-Molecular Natural Surfactants
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Colloids Interfaces 2018, 2(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/colloids2010003

Structural Analysis of a Modern o/w-Emulsion Stabilized by a Polyglycerol Ester Emulsifier and Consistency Enhancers

1
Evonik Nutrition & Care GmbH, Goldschmidtstr. 100, 41527 Essen, Germany
2
Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Cologne, Luxemburger Str. 116, 50939 Köln, Germany
3
Institute of Physical Chemistry, CENIDE, University Duisburg-Essen, Universitätsstr. 2, 45141 Essen, Germany
4
Institute of Chemistry, Technical University Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 124, 10623 Berlin, Germany
Present address: Matière Molle et Chimie, ESPCI Paris Tech, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris, France.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 14 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [19073 KB, uploaded 18 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

The aim of our work was to study the structure of a typical modern cosmetic oil-in-water emulsion (o/w-emulsion), based on the emulsifier polyglyceryl-3 dicitrate/stearate and glycerylstearate/stearyl alcohol as consistency enhancer. We have used a systematic approach building up the cosmetic emulsion step by step, characterizing all systems by using Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Freeze Fracture Transmission Electron Microscopy (FF-TEM), light microscopy and rheology. The starting point was the pure emulsifier in water, which was shown to form lamellar stacked bilayers with a spacing of 7 nm, coexisting with polydisperse unilamellar vesicles in the sub-µm range. Upon addition of consistency enhancer, also multilamellar vesicles could be obtained. Then, oil has been added stepwise, until finally a complete cosmetic o/w-emulsion was obtained. In the final emulsion, oil droplets with sizes in the µm range are surrounded by multiple, irregularly spaced bilayer structures and vesicles. Approximately 30% of the water present in the system shows a restricted mobility (“encapsulated water”) according to PFG-NMR. Crucial for the viscosity build-up is the presence of the oil droplets; a cream-like consistency is obtained by steric interaction of oil droplets and crystalline bilayer structures in the aqueous phase of the emulsion. View Full-Text
Keywords: emulsion; formulation; structure; bilayers; scattering; SANS; DSC; electron microscopy; FF-TEM; PFG-NMR spectroscopy emulsion; formulation; structure; bilayers; scattering; SANS; DSC; electron microscopy; FF-TEM; PFG-NMR spectroscopy
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Dahl, V.; Friedrich, A.; Meyer, J.; Venzmer, J.; Belkoura, L.; Strey, R.; Mayer, C.; Michel, R.; Gradzielski, M. Structural Analysis of a Modern o/w-Emulsion Stabilized by a Polyglycerol Ester Emulsifier and Consistency Enhancers. Colloids Interfaces 2018, 2, 3.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Colloids Interfaces EISSN 2504-5377 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top