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Inventions, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Framework for Stacked-Benefit Analysis of Distribution-Level Energy Storage Deployment
Inventions 2017, 2(2), 6; doi:10.3390/inventions2020006
Received: 25 February 2017 / Revised: 18 March 2017 / Accepted: 23 March 2017 / Published: 28 March 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents a planning framework for integrating energy storage (ES) systems into the distribution system. An ES system is deployed to simultaneously provide multiple benefits, also known as stacked-benefits, for the feeder. The primary and secondary application scenarios for the feeder are
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This paper presents a planning framework for integrating energy storage (ES) systems into the distribution system. An ES system is deployed to simultaneously provide multiple benefits, also known as stacked-benefits, for the feeder. The primary and secondary application scenarios for the feeder are identified. The proposed ES deployment approach includes the following steps: (1) size the ES system for primary application; (2) identify optimal ES locations based on both primary and secondary application scenarios; (3) calculate the ES accommodation capacity for each potential location; and (4) develop control methods for ES units and conduct grid impact analysis to demonstrate ES applications. For the selected feeder, the primary application for ES deployment is to provide the N-1 contingency requirement. During normal operating conditions, ES is programmed for multiple secondary applications: voltage management and ancillary services by frequency regulation. A probabilistic approach is presented to obtain the optimal ES size for providing the N-1 contingency requirement. Optimal ES locations are obtained based on secondary application scenarios. Real and reactive power control methods are developed to demonstrate the viability of deploying an ES system for simultaneously providing multiple applications. The simulation results show that ES can successfully provide the stacked-benefits for the distribution circuit. The proposed framework is generic and can be employed for the ES integration analysis of any feeder, with different sets of primary and secondary applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inventions and Innovation in Integration of Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Multi-Time-Scale Simulation Tool for Renewable Energy Integration Analysis in Distribution Circuits
Inventions 2017, 2(2), 7; doi:10.3390/inventions2020007
Received: 10 February 2017 / Revised: 24 March 2017 / Accepted: 11 April 2017 / Published: 13 April 2017
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Abstract
This paper develops a distribution circuit multi-time-scale simulation tool for applications in wind turbine and photovoltaic (PV) integration analysis. The proposed simulation tool developed in MATLAB™ includes several distribution circuit components, such as voltage sources, distribution lines, transformers, loads, capacitor banks, wind turbines
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This paper develops a distribution circuit multi-time-scale simulation tool for applications in wind turbine and photovoltaic (PV) integration analysis. The proposed simulation tool developed in MATLAB™ includes several distribution circuit components, such as voltage sources, distribution lines, transformers, loads, capacitor banks, wind turbines and PVs. Each equipment consists of three models for simulations in three different time scales, i.e., steady-state, electromechanical transient and electromagnetic transient models. Therefore, the proposed tool is able to perform a long-term simulation involving power system phenomena spreading across time scales. The test circuits employed to perform multi-time-scale simulation in this paper are modified from the IEEE four-node test feeder. The simulation scenarios include wind speed and solar irradiance ramp up and down; a capacitor bank is energized and de-energized; and a single-line-to-ground fault occurs and clears itself. The simulation results show that the proposed tool is capable of evaluating power system phenomena spread across time scales. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inventions and Innovation in Integration of Renewable Energy Systems)
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Open AccessArticle A Channel Allocation Mechanism for Cellular Networks
Inventions 2017, 2(2), 8; doi:10.3390/inventions2020008
Received: 17 February 2017 / Revised: 12 March 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 17 April 2017
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Abstract
In cellular networks, call blocking causes lower customer satisfaction and economic loss. Therefore, the channel allocation for call block avoidance is an important issue. This study proposes a mechanism that considers the real-time traffic information (e.g., traffic flow and vehicle speed) and the
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In cellular networks, call blocking causes lower customer satisfaction and economic loss. Therefore, the channel allocation for call block avoidance is an important issue. This study proposes a mechanism that considers the real-time traffic information (e.g., traffic flow and vehicle speed) and the user behavior (e.g., call inter-arrival time and call holding time) to analyze the adaptable number of communication calls in the specific cell for channel allocation. In experiments about call block probabilities (CBP), this study simulated two cases that are the situations of the whole day and traffic accident. The simulation results show that all CBPs in the scenario of whole day are less than 21.5% by using the proposed mechanism, which is better than using the static channel allocation (SCA) mechanism. Moreover, all CBPs in the scenario of traffic accidents are less than 16.5% by using the proposed mechanism, which is better than using the SCA mechanism. Therefore, the proposed mechanism can decrease the number of CBPs effectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Magnetically Recoverable and Reusable Antimicrobial Nanocomposite Based on Activated Carbon, Magnetite Nanoparticles, and Silver Nanoparticles for Water Disinfection
Inventions 2017, 2(2), 10; doi:10.3390/inventions2020010
Received: 25 April 2017 / Revised: 28 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
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Abstract
Recent advancements in nanotechnology have led to the development of innovative, low-cost and highly efficient water disinfection technologies that may replace or enhance the conventional methods. In this study, we introduce a novel procedure for preparing a bifunctional activated carbon nanocomposite in which
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Recent advancements in nanotechnology have led to the development of innovative, low-cost and highly efficient water disinfection technologies that may replace or enhance the conventional methods. In this study, we introduce a novel procedure for preparing a bifunctional activated carbon nanocomposite in which nanoscale-sized magnetic magnetite and antimicrobial silver nanoparticles are incorporated (MACAg). The antimicrobial efficacy of the nanocomposite was tested against Escherichia coli (E. coli). MACAg (0.5 g, 0.04% Ag) was found to remove and kill 106–107 CFU (colony-forming units) in 30 min via a shaking test and the removing and killing rate of the nanocomposites increased with increasing silver content and decreased with increasing CFU. The inhibition zone tests revealed, among the relevant components, only Ag nanoparticles and Ag+ ions showed antimicrobial activities. The MACAg was easily recoverable from treated water due to its magnetic properties and was able to remove and kill 106 CFU after multiple-repeated use. The MACAg nanocomposite also demonstrated its feasibility and applicability for treating a surface water containing 105 CFU. Combining low cost due to easy synthesis, recoverability, and reusability with high antimicrobial efficiency, MACAg may provide a promising water disinfection technology that will find wide applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites for Environmental Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Statistical Inference for Visualization of Large Utility Power Distribution Systems
Inventions 2017, 2(2), 11; doi:10.3390/inventions2020011
Received: 1 March 2017 / Revised: 28 May 2017 / Accepted: 30 May 2017 / Published: 8 June 2017
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Abstract
Electrical variable visualization has been widely applied to report the performance and effectiveness of novel devices and strategies in utility power distribution systems. Many graphical alternatives are useful to demonstrate critical characteristics of distribution systems such as voltage regulation or power flow. This
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Electrical variable visualization has been widely applied to report the performance and effectiveness of novel devices and strategies in utility power distribution systems. Many graphical alternatives are useful to demonstrate critical characteristics of distribution systems such as voltage regulation or power flow. This visualization of electrical variables can also be an effective approach to analyze, compare and evaluate large-scale systems. However, there is a lack of generalized visualization strategies oriented to perform electrical validations of smart grid strategies in large distribution systems. In this paper, we show that the proposed probabilistic density evolution is a powerful resource for long-term time-sequential simulations. Examinations with an IEEE 8500 node test feeder shows that the proposed approach increases the circuit situational awareness and reduces the validation time. To illustrate this methodology, the dynamic voltage condition was simulated and analyzed to recognize the global effect of voltage regulating equipment. The results show an accurate and convenient support that can be interpreted at first glance. The proper use of long-term field measurements and short time-step simulations is a robust method for future grid research, such as designing an optimum operation of intelligent devices or diagnosing electrical interoperability issues in complex grids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inventions and Innovation in Integration of Renewable Energy Systems)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Recent Advances in the Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanofibers and Their Environmental Remediation Applications
Inventions 2017, 2(2), 9; doi:10.3390/inventions2020009
Received: 20 March 2017 / Revised: 17 May 2017 / Accepted: 26 May 2017 / Published: 1 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7978 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, wastewater treatment by photocatalytic oxidation processes with metal oxide nanomaterials and nanocomposites such as zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, zirconium dioxide, etc. using ultraviolet (UV) and visible light or even solar energy has added massive research importance. This waste removal technique using nanostructured
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Recently, wastewater treatment by photocatalytic oxidation processes with metal oxide nanomaterials and nanocomposites such as zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, zirconium dioxide, etc. using ultraviolet (UV) and visible light or even solar energy has added massive research importance. This waste removal technique using nanostructured photocatalysts is well known because of its effectiveness in disintegrating and mineralizing the unsafe organic pollutants such as organic pesticides, organohalogens, PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons), surfactants, microorganisms, and other coloring agents in addition to the prospect of utilizing the solar and UV spectrum. The photocatalysts degrade the pollutants using light energy, which creates energetic electron in the metal oxide and thus generates hydroxyl radical, an oxidative mediator that can oxidize completely the organic pollutant in the wastewater. Altering the morphologies of metal oxide photocatalysts in nanoscale can further improve their photodegradation efficiency. Nanoscale features of the photocatalysts promote enhance light absorption and improved photon harvest property by refining the process of charge carrier generation and recombination at the semiconductor surfaces and in that way boost hydroxyl radicals. The literature covering semiconductor nanomaterials and nanocomposite-assisted photocatalysis—and, among those, metal oxide nanofibers—suggest that this is an attractive route for environmental remediation due to their capability of reaching complete mineralization of organic contaminants under mild reaction conditions such as room temperature and ambient atmospheric pressure with greater degradation performance. The main aim of this review is to highlight the most recent published work in the field of metal oxide nanofibrous photocatalyst-mediated degradation of organic pollutants and unsafe microorganisms present in wastewater. Finally, the recycling and reuse of photocatalysts for viable wastewater purification has also been conferred here and the latest examples given. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites for Environmental Applications)
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