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Soils 2017, 1(1), 2; doi:10.3390/soils1010002

Legacy of Rice Roots as Encoded in Distinctive Microsites of Oxides, Silicates, and Organic Matter

1
Chair of Soil Science, Department of Ecology and Ecosystem Sciences, TUM School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany
2
Department of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences, University of Torino, 10095 Grugliasco, Italy
3
Ente Nazionale Risi, Rice Research Centre, 27030 Castello d’Agogna, Pavia, Italy
4
Department Soil Physics, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research—UFZ, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany
5
Institute for Advanced Study, TU München, 85748 Garching, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 2 August 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 9 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rhizosphere Processes)
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Abstract

Rice (Oryza sativa) is usually grown under flooded conditions, leading to anoxic periods in the soil. Rice plants transport oxygen via aerenchyma from the atmosphere to the roots. Driven by O2 release into the rhizosphere, radial gradients of ferric Fe and co-precipitated organic substances are formed. Our study aimed at elucidating the composition and spatial extension of those gradients. Air-dried soil aggregates from a paddy field were embedded in epoxy resin, cut, and polished to produce cross sections. Reflected-light microscopy was used to identify root channels. With nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), we investigated transects from root channels into the soil matrix and detected 12C, 16O, 12C14N, 28Si, 27Al16O, and 56Fe16O to distinguish between embedding resin, organic matter, oxides, and silicates. Image analyses reveal high occurrences of 56Fe16O within and in close proximity of oxide-encrusted root cells, followed by a thin layer with high occurrences of 27Al16O and 12C14N. In two of the three transects, 28Si only occurs at distances larger than approximately 10 µm from the root surface. Thus, we can distinguish distinct zones: the inner zone is composed of oxide encrusted root cells and their fragments. A thin intermediate zone may occur around some roots and comprises (hydr)oxides and organic matter. This can be distinguished from a silicate-dominated outer zone, which reflects the transition from the rhizosphere to the bulk soil. View Full-Text
Keywords: paddy soil; iron plaque; NanoSIMS; image analysis; reflectance light microscopy; scanning electron microscopy; rhizosphere paddy soil; iron plaque; NanoSIMS; image analysis; reflectance light microscopy; scanning electron microscopy; rhizosphere
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kölbl, A.; Schweizer, S.A.; Mueller, C.W.; Höschen, C.; Said-Pullicino, D.; Romani, M.; Lugmeier, J.; Schlüter, S.; Kögel-Knabner, I. Legacy of Rice Roots as Encoded in Distinctive Microsites of Oxides, Silicates, and Organic Matter. Soils 2017, 1, 2.

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