Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Philosophies, Volume 1, Issue 3 (December 2016), Pages 170-274

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-8
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Extrapolating on McLuhan: How Media Environments of the Given, the Represented, and the Induced Shape and Reshape Our Sensorium
Philosophies 2016, 1(3), 170-189; doi:10.3390/philosophies1030170
Received: 3 June 2016 / Revised: 14 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 September 2016 / Published: 22 September 2016
PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The article develops Marshall McLuhan’s approach to the interplay between media, the sensorium, and reality. McLuhan’s concepts of “acoustic space” and “visual space” are unfolded with regard to the consequences that digital media will have on the human ability to perceive reality. Reality–sensorium
[...] Read more.
The article develops Marshall McLuhan’s approach to the interplay between media, the sensorium, and reality. McLuhan’s concepts of “acoustic space” and “visual space” are unfolded with regard to the consequences that digital media will have on the human ability to perceive reality. Reality–sensorium interaction is systematized in the article. This systematization includes the environments of the given, the represented, and the induced. These environments are shaped by sequential stages of media evolution, which relate to preliterate media, alphabet-based media, and digital media. Existing and upcoming media technologies are presumed to alter human biology and transcend it. Within the set of media technologies that alter human biology, artificial flavours, electrically induced senses, immersive media, augmented reality, and virtual reality are treated. Within the set of media impacts that will change the human sensorium, the dismissal of gravity (related to the McLuhanian “angelism” of electronic discarnate man), the switch in navigation from biological networking to social networking, the sense of others, and the thirst for response are treated. Plato, Lenin, Wittgenstein, Benveniste, Logan, Carr, Shirky, and other thinkers are employed in the article to support these McLuhanian speculations, and sketch out prospective trends in the evolution of media and the sensorium. Full article
Open AccessArticle Media Ecology: A Complex and Systemic Metadiscipline
Philosophies 2016, 1(3), 190-198; doi:10.3390/philosophies1030190
Received: 19 May 2016 / Revised: 3 June 2016 / Accepted: 8 July 2016 / Published: 11 October 2016
PDF Full-text (318 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Media ecology is not the theoretical stream of communication studies and it is not limited to Marshall McLuhan´s work and thinking; however, we focus on McLuhan’s approach to media ecology for this special issue on the philosophy of Marshall McLuhan. Media ecology is
[...] Read more.
Media ecology is not the theoretical stream of communication studies and it is not limited to Marshall McLuhan´s work and thinking; however, we focus on McLuhan’s approach to media ecology for this special issue on the philosophy of Marshall McLuhan. Media ecology is a complex and systemic metadiscipline whose object of study is the changes and effects that have occurred in society as a result of the evolution of technology and media throughout history. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Homo Technologicus: Threat or Opportunity?
Philosophies 2016, 1(3), 199-208; doi:10.3390/philosophies1030199
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 17 October 2016 / Accepted: 19 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (196 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Homo sapiens is entering a vital era in which the human-technology link is an inexorable trend. In this paper a look is taken as to how and why this is coming about and what exactly it means for both the posthuman species Homo
[...] Read more.
Homo sapiens is entering a vital era in which the human-technology link is an inexorable trend. In this paper a look is taken as to how and why this is coming about and what exactly it means for both the posthuman species Homo technologicus and its originator Homo sapiens. Clearly moral and ethical issues are at stake. Different practical experimentation results that relate to the theme are described and the argument is raised as to why and how this can be regarded as a new species. A picture is taken of the status of cyborgs as it stands today but also how this will change in the near future, as the effects of increased technological power have a more dramatic influence. An important ultimate consideration is whether Homo technologicus will act in the best interests of Homo sapiens or not. This paper concludes that the answer is clear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyberphenomenology: Technominds Revolution)
Open AccessArticle The Career of the Lógos: A Brief Biography
Philosophies 2016, 1(3), 209-219; doi:10.3390/philosophies1030209
Received: 16 August 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 12 October 2016 / Published: 29 October 2016
PDF Full-text (219 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper is a review of the influence that lógos has had on ancient Greek, Jewish, and Christian writings. During the philosophical era known as Middle Platonism, the concept/ontology of the lógos played a unique role in enabling Pagan, Jewish, and Christian intellectuals
[...] Read more.
This paper is a review of the influence that lógos has had on ancient Greek, Jewish, and Christian writings. During the philosophical era known as Middle Platonism, the concept/ontology of the lógos played a unique role in enabling Pagan, Jewish, and Christian intellectuals to communicate on a small space of common ground. Full article
Open AccessArticle Mind as Medium: Jung, McLuhan and the Archetype
Philosophies 2016, 1(3), 220-227; doi:10.3390/philosophies1030220
Received: 21 June 2016 / Revised: 25 September 2016 / Accepted: 25 October 2016 / Published: 4 November 2016
PDF Full-text (176 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Greek notion of archetype was adopted and popularized in the context of the analytical psychology of Carl Gustav Jung. Marshall McLuhan used the concept archetype as a formal perspective rather than the content of an alleged “collective unconscious”. In his book From
[...] Read more.
The Greek notion of archetype was adopted and popularized in the context of the analytical psychology of Carl Gustav Jung. Marshall McLuhan used the concept archetype as a formal perspective rather than the content of an alleged “collective unconscious”. In his book From Cliché to Archetype, the idea of archetype is presented as the ground where individual action is the figure. This article, departing from the notion of archetype, explores some convergences between the thought of Carl Jung and Marshall McLuhan and some of its developments for Media Ecology studies. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Interaction and Convergence of the Philosophy and Science of Information
Philosophies 2016, 1(3), 228-244; doi:10.3390/philosophies1030228
Received: 3 August 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 1 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (223 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Under the impact of information technology and the information sciences, major changes are occurring in both science and philosophy that constitute an informational turn. The recently developed Philosophy of Information has integrated the unique dualistic ontological properties of information, and scientific rationality can
[...] Read more.
Under the impact of information technology and the information sciences, major changes are occurring in both science and philosophy that constitute an informational turn. The recently developed Philosophy of Information has integrated the unique dualistic ontological properties of information, and scientific rationality can now be seen to include an interactive relationship between science and philosophy. Information, in particular Information Science is thus part of the structure, and not just of the content, of philosophy. In this mode of knowledge development, science transforms philosophy and philosophy can critique both science and itself. I see a process of convergence taking place that is leading to a Unified Science-Philosophy of Information, a system of disciplines of which the Philosophy of Information is a part, and Information Science achieves an additional dimension based on this fundamental philosophical stance. I argue further that a proper new Philosophy of Science would be an informational metaphilosophy in that a Unified Science-Philosophy of Information includes both a new content of Science and new dynamics of the relations between a science and its philosophy. Full article
Open AccessArticle Harnessing the Computational Power of Fluids for Optimization of Collective Decision Making
Philosophies 2016, 1(3), 245-260; doi:10.3390/philosophies1030245
Received: 21 July 2016 / Revised: 24 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 7 December 2016
PDF Full-text (2282 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
How can we harness nature’s power for computations? Our society comprises a collection of individuals, each of whom handles decision-making tasks that are abstracted as computational problems of finding the most profitable option from a set of options that stochastically provide rewards. Society
[...] Read more.
How can we harness nature’s power for computations? Our society comprises a collection of individuals, each of whom handles decision-making tasks that are abstracted as computational problems of finding the most profitable option from a set of options that stochastically provide rewards. Society is expected to maximize the total rewards, while the individuals compete for common rewards. Such collective decision making is formulated as the “competitive multi-armed bandit problem (CBP).” Herein, we demonstrate an analog computing device that uses numerous fluids in coupled cylinders to efficiently solve CBP for the maximization of social rewards, without paying the conventionally-required huge computational cost. The fluids estimate the reward probabilities of the options for the exploitation of past knowledge, and generate random fluctuations for the exploration of new knowledge for which the utilization of the fluid-derived fluctuations is more advantageous than applying artificial fluctuations. The fluid-derived fluctuations, which require exponentially-many combinatorial efforts when they are emulated using conventional digital computers, would exhibit their maximal computational power when tackling classes of problems that are more complex than CBP. Extending the current configuration of the device would trigger further studies related to harnessing the huge computational power of natural phenomena to solve a wide variety of complex societal problems. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Political Correctness between Wise Stoicism and Violent Hypocrisy
Philosophies 2016, 1(3), 261-274; doi:10.3390/philosophies1030261
Received: 23 September 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 8 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (341 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article aims at commenting in a novel way on the concept of political correctness, by showing that, even if adopting a politically-correct behavior aims at promoting a precise moral outcome, violence can be still perpetrated, despite good intentions. To afford in a
[...] Read more.
This article aims at commenting in a novel way on the concept of political correctness, by showing that, even if adopting a politically-correct behavior aims at promoting a precise moral outcome, violence can be still perpetrated, despite good intentions. To afford in a novel way the problem of political correctness, I will adopt a theoretical strategy that adheres to moral stoicism, the problem of “silence”, the “fascist state of the mind” and the concept of “overmorality”, which I have introduced in my book Understanding Violence. The Intertwining of Morality, Religion, and Violence: A Philosophical Stance (Springer: Heidelberg/Berlin, Germany, 2011). I will demonstrate that political correctness certainly obeys the stoic moral rule, which teaches us that we have to diminish conflicts and, so, the potential for derived violence, by avoiding to pronounce words and expressions that can be offensive and so conflict making. Unfortunately, political correctness often increases the so-called already widespread overmorality, typical of our era, and postulates too many minor moral values (or rights) to be attributed to individuals and groups, which must be respected. Therefore, engaging in political correctness obscures more serious issues regarding social, political and economic life, committing a sin of abstractness and idealization. At the same time, by discouraging the use of words and expressions, the intrinsic overmoralization at work creates potential new conflicts and potential derived violence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Political Correctness—Towards a Global Ethos)
Back to Top