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Safety 2017, 3(1), 10; doi:10.3390/safety3010010

Post-Injury and Resolution Response to Repetitive Inhalation Exposure to Agricultural Organic Dust in Mice

1
Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep & Allergy Division; Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC), 985990 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5990, USA
2
Department of Environmental, Agricultural, and Occupational Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 985990 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5990, USA
3
Veterans Affairs Nebraska-Western Iowa Health Care System, 4101 Woolworth St., Omaha, NE 68105, USA
4
Department of Pathology and Microbiology, UNMC, 983135 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 681983135, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Dennis Murphy
Received: 30 June 2016 / Accepted: 10 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Agricultural Safety and Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3226 KB, uploaded 22 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Inhalation of organic dusts in agricultural environments causes airway inflammatory diseases. Despite advances in understanding the airway response to dust-induced inflammation, less is known about the transition from lung injury to repair and recovery. The objective of this study was to define the post-inflammation homeostasis events following organic dust-induced lung injury. Using an established protocol, mice were intranasally treated with swine confinement facility organic dust extract (ODE) daily for 3 weeks (repetitive exposure) or treated daily with ODE for 3 weeks followed by no treatment for 1-4 weeks (recovery period) whereupon lavage fluid, lung tissue, and sera were processed. During recovery period, a significant decrease was observed in ODE-induced neutrophil levels after 1 week, lymphocytes at 2 weeks, and macrophages at 4 weeks in the lavage fluid. ODE-induced lung cellular aggregates and bronchiolar compartment inflammation were diminished, but persisted for 4 weeks post-injury. Alveolar inflammation resolved at 3 weeks. ODE-induced lung neutrophils were cleared by 3 weeks, B-cells by 2 weeks, and CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cells by 4 week recovery period. Amphiregulin levels increased post-ODE exposure to the 4 week recovery period. Ex vivo amphiregulin production was demonstrated in lung type 2 innate lymphoid cells and macrophages isolated from the 4 week recovery (post-ODE exposure) animals. Collectively, these results identify important processes during recovery period following agricultural dust-induced inflammation, and present possible strategies for improving lung repair and resolution. View Full-Text
Keywords: lung; repair; inflammation; resolution; lymphocyte; agriculture; farm; neutrophil; immunity; swine barn; amphiregulin; innate lymphoid cells; ILC2 lung; repair; inflammation; resolution; lymphocyte; agriculture; farm; neutrophil; immunity; swine barn; amphiregulin; innate lymphoid cells; ILC2
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MDPI and ACS Style

Warren, K.J.; Wyatt, T.A.; Romberger, D.J.; Ailts, I.; West, W.W.; Nelson, A.J.; Nordgren, T.M.; Staab, E.; Heires, A.J.; Poole, J.A. Post-Injury and Resolution Response to Repetitive Inhalation Exposure to Agricultural Organic Dust in Mice. Safety 2017, 3, 10.

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