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Horticulturae 2017, 3(3), 47; doi:10.3390/horticulturae3030047

Plant Water Status Indicators for Irrigation Scheduling Associated with Iso- and Anisohydric Behavior: Vine and Plum Trees

1
Departamento de Hortofruticultura, Centro de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas de Extremadura (CICYTEX), Finca La Orden, Junta de Extremadura, Autovía A-V, Km 372, 06187 Guadajira (Badajoz), Spain
2
Instituto Superior de Agronomia (ISA), Universidade de Lisboa (ULisboa), Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal
3
Linking Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food (LEAF), Instituto Superior de Agronomia (ISA), Universidade de Lisboa (ULisboa), Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal
4
Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agrária e Veterinária, Pólo de Dois Portos, 2565-191 Dois Portos, Torres Vedras, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 20 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 12 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Refining Irrigation Strategies in Horticultural Production)
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Abstract

Plant water status indicators have been increasingly used for scheduling irrigation. Different variables may be used to do this, depending on personal preferences and the resources available. Many studies have suggested that selection of an indicator should take into account plant behavior in relation to isohydricity. In two Iberian studies, deficit irrigation (DI) was applied in a vineyard and in a plum orchard while plant water status and fluxes were monitored. These case-studies are discussed with special focus on the use of predawn leaf water potential (Ψpd) versus stem water potential (Ψst) to determine whether Ψst performed better and would therefore be the preferred stress indicator for plants exhibiting anisohydric behavior. In contrast, in plants with isohydric behavior, Ψpd would be generally preferred. This hypothesis seems to be supported by the present results obtained and by prior studies. The cultivars used and the intensity of stress applied have an important influence on the results. This suggests that, if no specific information is available from the existing literature, daily preliminary studies would be recommended prior to application in order to select the most appropriate plant water stress indicators. View Full-Text
Keywords: water management; water stress; deficit irrigation; leaf potential; stem diameter; transpiration; orchards; drought tolerance; drought avoidance water management; water stress; deficit irrigation; leaf potential; stem diameter; transpiration; orchards; drought tolerance; drought avoidance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Blanco-Cipollone, F.; Lourenço, S.; Silvestre, J.; Conceição, N.; Moñino, M.J.; Vivas, A.; Ferreira, M.I. Plant Water Status Indicators for Irrigation Scheduling Associated with Iso- and Anisohydric Behavior: Vine and Plum Trees. Horticulturae 2017, 3, 47.

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