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Fermentation 2017, 3(3), 47; doi:10.3390/fermentation3030047

Evaluation of Tannins and Anthocyanins in Marquette, Frontenac, and St. Croix Cold-Hardy Grape Cultivars

1
Interdepartmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Iowa State University, 2573 Food Sciences, 536 Farm House Ln, Ames, IA 50011, USA
2
Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, 4350 Elings Hall, 605 Bissell Rd, Ames, IA 50011, USA
3
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
4
Midwest Grape and Wine Industry Institute, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
5
Department of Agronomy, Horticulture & Plant Science, South Dakota State University and BioSNTR, Box 2140C, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 18 September 2017
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Abstract

Cold-hardy grape cultivars have become popular in northern regions. Wines from these cultivars are low in tannins and lighter in color compared to Vitis vinifera. The northern regions are striving to enhance desired ″full body″ and red color qualities in the wine produced from cold-hardy grapes. The objective of this study was to compare tannin and pigment content in skins and seeds of three cold-hardy red grape cultivars, at two time points, from two locations, using the Adams-Harbertson (A-H) assay. The A-H assay is based on protein precipitation and spectrophotometry. Total tannin concentrations detected in Frontenac, Marquette, and St. Croix berries, ranged from 0.29 to 0.66 mg/berry catechin equivalents (CE). Bitter seed tannins were most abundant in Marquette berries (0.54 ± 0.66 mg/berry CE). Softer skin tannins were most abundant in St. Croix berries (0.24 ± 0.19 mg/berry CE). Monomeric anthocyanins contributed to over 60% of the total color at pH 4.9 and were highest in St. Croix skins (74.21% of the total color at pH 4.9). Varying amounts of short polymeric pigments and long polymeric pigments were present in grape skins, indicating that pigmented tannins had already formed by harvest. This is the first evaluation of tannins and pigments in Frontenac, Marquette, and St. Croix berries. View Full-Text
Keywords: tannins; pigments; Frontenac; Marquette; St. Croix; cold-hardy grapes tannins; pigments; Frontenac; Marquette; St. Croix; cold-hardy grapes
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rice, S.; Koziel, J.A.; Dharmadhikari, M.; Fennell, A. Evaluation of Tannins and Anthocyanins in Marquette, Frontenac, and St. Croix Cold-Hardy Grape Cultivars. Fermentation 2017, 3, 47.

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