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Fermentation 2017, 3(2), 17; doi:10.3390/fermentation3020017

Laccases as a Potential Tool for the Efficient Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review

1
Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria–Centro de Investigación Forestal (INIA–CIFOR), Forestry Products Department, Ctra. de La Coruña Km 7.5, Madrid 28040, Spain
2
Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Department of Energy, Biofuels Unit, Avda. Complutense 40, Madrid 28040, Spain
3
Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados (IMDEA)–Energía, Biotechnological Processes for Energy Production Unit, Móstoles 28935, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Thaddeus Ezeji
Received: 26 March 2017 / Revised: 20 April 2017 / Accepted: 26 April 2017 / Published: 2 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biofuels and Biochemicals Production)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [864 KB, uploaded 2 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

The continuous increase in the world energy and chemicals demand requires the development of sustainable alternatives to non-renewable sources of energy. Biomass facilities and biorefineries represent interesting options to gradually replace the present industry based on fossil fuels. Lignocellulose is the most promising feedstock to be used in biorefineries. From a sugar platform perspective, a wide range of fuels and chemicals can be obtained via microbial fermentation processes, being ethanol the most significant lignocellulose-derived fuel. Before fermentation, lignocellulose must be pretreated to overcome its inherent recalcitrant structure and obtain the fermentable sugars. Usually, harsh conditions are required for pretreatment of lignocellulose, producing biomass degradation and releasing different compounds that are inhibitors of the hydrolytic enzymes and fermenting microorganisms. Moreover, the lignin polymer that remains in pretreated materials also affects biomass conversion by limiting the enzymatic hydrolysis. The use of laccases has been considered as a very powerful tool for delignification and detoxification of pretreated lignocellulosic materials, boosting subsequent saccharification and fermentation processes. This review compiles the latest studies about the application of laccases as useful and environmentally friendly delignification and detoxification technology, highlighting the main challenges and possible ways to make possible the integration of these enzymes in future lignocellulose-based industries. View Full-Text
Keywords: lignocellulosic biorefinery; delignification; detoxification; ethanol; fermentation; inhibitory compounds; laccase; lignin; pretreatment; saccharification lignocellulosic biorefinery; delignification; detoxification; ethanol; fermentation; inhibitory compounds; laccase; lignin; pretreatment; saccharification
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fillat, Ú.; Ibarra, D.; Eugenio, M.E.; Moreno, A.D.; Tomás-Pejó, E.; Martín-Sampedro, R. Laccases as a Potential Tool for the Efficient Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Review. Fermentation 2017, 3, 17.

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