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C 2016, 2(1), 4; doi:10.3390/c2010004

Manganese Oxide Coated Carbon Materials as Hybrid Catalysts for the Application in Primary Aqueous Metal-Air Batteries

1
Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research (ISC), Neunerplatz 2, 97082 Wuerzburg, Germany
2
Forschungszentrum Juelich, GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, IEK-9, 52425 Juelich, Germany
3
Julius-Maximilians-University Wuerzburg, Roentgenring 11, 97070 Wuerzburg, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rüdiger Schweiss
Received: 30 October 2015 / Revised: 27 January 2016 / Accepted: 2 February 2016 / Published: 15 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Carbon Materials for Electrochemical Power Sources)
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Abstract

One of the major challenges of metal-air batteries is the impeded oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) during discharge occurring at the gas diffusion electrode (GDE) of the battery. Due to the impeded ORR, high overpotentials emerge and result in a loss of energy efficiency. In order to improve the latter, suitable catalysts have to be employed. Transition metal oxides like manganese oxides (e.g., MnO2, Mn2O3, Mn3O4, Mn5O8, MnOOH) [1,2] are known as good and inexpensive materials for the ORR in alkaline media. A drawback of manganese oxide catalysts is the poor electrical conductivity. Hence, the approach presented in this work aims to enhance the catalytic activity of Mn3O4 and γ–MnO2 by the incorporation of conductive carbon material into the pure manganese oxide. The resulting hybrid catalysts are prepared either by impregnation of Super C 65, Vulcan XC 72, and Kuraray YP 50F via a sol-gel technique employing a MnO2 precursor sol or by direct precipitation of Mn3O4 or γ–MnO2 particles in the presence of the carbon materials mentioned above. Investigations by rotating disc electrode (RDE) show a noticeably higher catalytic activity of the hybrid catalysts than for the pure materials. For verification of the results measured by RDE, screen printed GDEs are prepared and tested in Zn-air full cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: γ–MnO2 catalyst; Mn3O4 catalyst; oxygen reduction reaction (ORR); gas diffusion electrode (GDE); aqueous metal-air battery; Zn-air battery; screen printing γ–MnO2 catalyst; Mn3O4 catalyst; oxygen reduction reaction (ORR); gas diffusion electrode (GDE); aqueous metal-air battery; Zn-air battery; screen printing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Flegler, A.; Hartmann, S.; Weinrich, H.; Kapuschinski, M.; Settelein, J.; Lorrmann, H.; Sextl, G. Manganese Oxide Coated Carbon Materials as Hybrid Catalysts for the Application in Primary Aqueous Metal-Air Batteries. C 2016, 2, 4.

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