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Non-Coding RNA 2015, 1(1), 17-43; doi:10.3390/ncrna1010017

MicroRNA and Breast Cancer: Understanding Pathogenesis, Improving Management

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, LSU Health Science Center; 533 Bolivar Street, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: George A. Calin
Received: 6 March 2015 / Revised: 10 April 2015 / Accepted: 14 April 2015 / Published: 20 April 2015
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Abstract

The advent of the microRNAs in the early 1990s has proven to be a tremendously significant development within the purview of gene regulation. They participate in the regulation of a broad assembly of processes vital to proper cell function and the perturbation of these pathways following alteration of miRNA expression is strongly believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the miRNAs that have to date been well-characterized in the context of human breast neoplasia. Detailed discussion will center around their role in tumor initiation and progression, control of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cancer stem cell formation, use as biomarkers in tissues and circulation, as well as their role in cancer treatment. In addition, attention will be given to topics which remain underexplored, such as miRNA control of cancer cell metabolism and the genomic/epigenetic origins underlying the preliminary disruption of miRNA expression in disease. This review will also address and attempt to resolve instances where discordant, inter-study findings have been reported (examples of which are replete in the literature) while also identifying bottlenecks hampering progress in miRNA research and other challenges that confront this fledgling but promising field of biomedical research. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer; miRNA; serum biomarker; metastasis; cancer stem cells breast cancer; miRNA; serum biomarker; metastasis; cancer stem cells
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Eastlack, S.C.; Alahari, S.K. MicroRNA and Breast Cancer: Understanding Pathogenesis, Improving Management. Non-Coding RNA 2015, 1, 17-43.

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