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J. Fungi 2018, 4(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4010009

Patient Susceptibility to Candidiasis—A Potential for Adjunctive Immunotherapy

Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious diseases (RCI), Radboud University Medical Center, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 15 December 2017 / Accepted: 30 December 2017 / Published: 9 January 2018
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Abstract

Candida spp. are colonizing fungi of human skin and mucosae of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, present in 30–50% of healthy individuals in a population at any given moment. The host defense mechanisms prevent this commensal fungus from invading and causing disease. Loss of skin or mucosal barrier function, microbiome imbalances, or defects of immune defense mechanisms can lead to an increased susceptibility to severe mucocutaneous or invasive candidiasis. A comprehensive understanding of the immune defense against Candida is essential for developing adjunctive immunotherapy. The important role of underlying genetic susceptibility to Candida infections has become apparent over the years. In most patients, the cause of increased susceptibility to fungal infections is complex, based on a combination of immune regulation gene polymorphisms together with other non-genetic predisposing factors. Identification of patients with an underlying genetic predisposition could help determine which patients could benefit from prophylactic antifungal treatment or adjunctive immunotherapy. This review will provide an overview of patient susceptibility to mucocutaneous and invasive candidiasis and the potential for adjunctive immunotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: mucocutaneous candidiasis; invasive candidiasis; candidemia; immune defense; patient susceptibility; genetic predisposition; chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC); hyper IgE syndrome; immunotherapy mucocutaneous candidiasis; invasive candidiasis; candidemia; immune defense; patient susceptibility; genetic predisposition; chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC); hyper IgE syndrome; immunotherapy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Davidson, L.; Netea, M.G.; Kullberg, B.J. Patient Susceptibility to Candidiasis—A Potential for Adjunctive Immunotherapy. J. Fungi 2018, 4, 9.

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