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J. Fungi 2017, 3(4), 53; doi:10.3390/jof3040053

Cryptococcus–Epithelial Interactions

Institute of Microbiology and Infection, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, West Midlands, UK
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 30 September 2017 / Published: 2 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mucosal Fungal Infections)
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Abstract

The fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans, causes devastating levels of morbidity and mortality. Infections with this fungus tend to be predominantly in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV. Infections initiate with inhalation of cryptococcal cells and entry of the pathogen into the lungs. The bronchial epithelial cells of the upper airway and the alveolar epithelial cells of the lower airway are likely to be the first host cells that Cryptococcus engage with. Thus the interaction of cryptococci and the respiratory epithelia will be the focus of this review. C. neoformans has been shown to adhere to respiratory epithelial cells, although if the role of the capsule is in aiding or hindering this adhesion is debatable. The epithelia are also able to react to cryptococci with the release of cytokines and chemokines to start the immune response to this invading pathogen. The activity of surfactant components that line this mucosal barrier towards Cryptococcus and the metabolic and transcriptional reaction of cryptococci when encountering epithelial cells will also be discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cryptococcus; epithelial cells; host–fungal interactions Cryptococcus; epithelial cells; host–fungal interactions
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Taylor-Smith, L.M. Cryptococcus–Epithelial Interactions. J. Fungi 2017, 3, 53.

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