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J. Fungi 2017, 3(3), 49; doi:10.3390/jof3030049

Conserved Inhibition of Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Release by Clinical Candida albicans Biofilms

1
Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706-1521, USA
2
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706-1521, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Fungus Interactions)
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Abstract

Candida albicans biofilms are difficult to eradicate due to their resistance to host defenses and antifungal drugs. Although neutrophils are the primary responder to C. albicans during invasive candidiasis, biofilms resist killing by neutrophils. Prior investigation, with the commonly used laboratory strain SC5314, linked this phenotype to the impaired release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are structures of DNA, histones, and antimicrobial proteins involved in extracellular microbial killing. Considering the diversity of C. albicans biofilms, we examined the neutrophil response to a subset of clinical isolates forming biofilms with varying depths and architectures. Using fluorescent staining of DNA and scanning electron microscopy, we found that inhibition of NET release was conserved across the clinical isolates. However, the dampening of the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by neutrophils was strain-dependent, suggesting an uncoupling of ROS and NET inhibition. Our findings show that biofilms formed by clinical C. albicans isolates uniformly impair the release of NETs. Further investigation of this pathway may reveal novel approaches to augment immunity to C. albicans biofilm infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida; biofilm; neutrophil; neutrophil extracellular trap; fungal; reactive oxygen species; filamentation; phagocyte Candida; biofilm; neutrophil; neutrophil extracellular trap; fungal; reactive oxygen species; filamentation; phagocyte
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kernien, J.F.; Johnson, C.J.; Nett, J.E. Conserved Inhibition of Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Release by Clinical Candida albicans Biofilms. J. Fungi 2017, 3, 49.

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