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J. Fungi 2017, 3(2), 26; doi:10.3390/jof3020026

Innate and Adaptive Immune Defects in Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis

1
Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, The University of Manchester, Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
2
The National Aspergillosis Centre, 2nd Floor Education and Research Centre, University Hospital of South Manchester, Southmoor Road, Manchester M23 9LT, UK
3
Department of Medical Statistics, University Hospital of South Manchester, Manchester M23 9LT, UK
4
Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, 2nd Floor Education and Research Centre, University Hospital of South Manchester, Southmoor Road, Manchester M23 9LT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Adilia Warris
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 8 May 2017 / Published: 29 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host–Fungus Interactions)
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Abstract

We evaluated the expression of biomarkers of innate and adaptive immune response in correlation with underlying conditions in 144 patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA). Patients with complete medical and radiological records, white cell counts, and a complete panel of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, and CD56 lymphocyte subsets were included. Eighty-four (58%) patients had lymphopenia. Six (4%) patients had lymphopenia in all five CD variables. There were 62 (43%) patients with low CD56 and 62 (43%) patients with low CD19. Ten (7%) patients had isolated CD19 lymphopenia, 18 (13%) had isolated CD56 lymphopenia, and 15 (10%) had combined CD19 and CD56 lymphopenia only. Forty-eight (33%) patients had low CD3 and 46 (32%) had low CD8 counts. Twenty-five (17%) patients had low CD4, 15 (10%) of whom had absolute CD4 counts <200/μL. Multivariable logistic regression showed associations between: low CD19 and pulmonary sarcoidosis (Odds Ratio (OR), 5.53; 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.43–21.33; p = 0.013), and emphysema (OR, 4.58; 95% CI; 1.36–15.38; p = 0.014), low CD56 and no bronchiectasis (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.10–0.77; p = 0.014), low CD3 and both multicavitary CPA disease (OR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.30–6.72; p = 0.010) and pulmonary sarcoidosis (OR, 4.94; 95% CI, 1.39–17.57; p = 0.014). Several subtle immune defects are found in CPA. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic pulmonary aspergillosis; innate and adaptive immune defects; underlying lung disease chronic pulmonary aspergillosis; innate and adaptive immune defects; underlying lung disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bongomin, F.; Harris, C.; Foden, P.; Kosmidis, C.; Denning, D.W. Innate and Adaptive Immune Defects in Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis. J. Fungi 2017, 3, 26.

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