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J. Fungi 2015, 1(2), 211-216; doi:10.3390/jof1020211

Environmental and Genetic Factors on the Development of Onychomycosis

Department of Podiatric Medicine, Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine, 148 N. 8th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Theodore Rosen
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 15 August 2015 / Accepted: 19 August 2015 / Published: 31 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cutaneous Fungal Diseases)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [633 KB, uploaded 1 September 2015]


Since the early 20th century, onychomycosis originated with the onset of war, the use of occlusive footwear, and the mass migration of people by transportation in the United States. Even though onychomycosis has a high prevalence in the US, other parts of the world including Canada, West Africa, Southeast Asia, Northern Australia, and Europe have been well documented with cases of fungal toenail infection in their environments. Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) is the major dermatophyte responsible for toenail fungal infection and is typically diagnosed in conjunction with tinea pedis, especially in individuals older than 60 years. Gender roles, age, cultural habits, shoe gear, sports activities, and genetic predisposition all contribute to the different presentation of onychomycosis in these areas where organisms like dermatophytes, candida, and molds were isolated in a variety of cases. Despite the differences in isolated pathogens, treatment outcomes remained consistent. This literature review discusses the influence of tinea pedis, genetics, shoe gear, sports, and age on the development of onychomycosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: onychomycosis; tinea pedis; environmental factors; age influence of onychomycosis; cultural habits; genetics; trichophyton rubrum; toenails onychomycosis; tinea pedis; environmental factors; age influence of onychomycosis; cultural habits; genetics; trichophyton rubrum; toenails
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Adams, C.; Athanasoula, E.; Lee, W.; Mahmudova, N.; Vlahovic, T.C. Environmental and Genetic Factors on the Development of Onychomycosis. J. Fungi 2015, 1, 211-216.

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