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J. Fungi 2016, 2(1), 4; doi:10.3390/jof2010004

Severe Dermatophytosis and Acquired or Innate Immunodeficiency: A Review

1
Centre d’Infectiologie Necker-Pasteur, Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades et Institut Imagine, APHP, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75015 Paris, France
2
Dermatology Department, King’s College Hospital NHS Trust, London SE5 9RS, UK
3
Service de Dermatologie, Hôpital Henri Mondor, APHP, Université Paris-Est Créteil, 94010 Créteil, France
4
Service de Dermatologie, Hôpital Cochin, APHP, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75014 Paris, France
5
Laboratoire de Génétique Humaine des Maladies Infectieuses, INSERM U1163, Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades et Institut Imagine, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75015 Paris, France
6
Institut Pasteur, Centre National de Référence Mycoses Invasives, 75015 Paris, France
7
Institut Pasteur, Unité de Mycologie Moléculaire, CNRS URA3012, 75015 Paris, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David S. Perlin
Received: 21 October 2015 / Revised: 16 November 2015 / Accepted: 14 December 2015 / Published: 31 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cutaneous Fungal Diseases)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1597 KB, uploaded 31 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi responsible for benign and common forms of infection worldwide. However, they can lead to rare and severe diseases in immunocompromised patients. Severe forms include extensive and/or invasive dermatophytosis, i.e., deep dermatophytosis and Majocchi’s granuloma. They are reported in immunocompromised hosts with primary (autosomal recessive CARD9 deficiency) or acquired (solid organ transplantation, autoimmune diseases requiring immunosuppressive treatments, HIV infection) immunodeficiencies. The clinical manifestations of the infection are not specific. Lymph node and organ involvement may also occur. Diagnosis requires both mycological and histological findings. There is no consensus on treatment. Systemic antifungal agents such as terbinafine and azoles (itraconazole or posaconazole) are effective. However, long-term outcome and treatment management depend on the site and extent of the infection and the nature of the underlying immunodeficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: dermatophytosis; Trichophyton rubrum; immunodepression; organ transplant; HIV; CARD9 deficiency dermatophytosis; Trichophyton rubrum; immunodepression; organ transplant; HIV; CARD9 deficiency
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rouzaud, C.; Hay, R.; Chosidow, O.; Dupin, N.; Puel, A.; Lortholary, O.; Lanternier, F. Severe Dermatophytosis and Acquired or Innate Immunodeficiency: A Review. J. Fungi 2016, 2, 4.

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