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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2017, 4(4), 21; doi:10.3390/jcdd4040021

The Physiopathology of Cardiorenal Syndrome: A Review of the Potential Contributions of Inflammation

1
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Pavillon Ferdinand Vandry, 1050, Avenue de la Médecine, Université Laval, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
2
Centre de Recherche de l’Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec–Université Laval, 2725, Chemin Sainte-Foy, Quebec, QC G1V 4G5, Canada
3
Faculty of Pharmacy, Pavillon Ferdinand Vandry, 1050, Avenue de la Médecine, Université Laval, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 November 2017 / Revised: 25 November 2017 / Accepted: 26 November 2017 / Published: 29 November 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [266 KB, uploaded 29 November 2017]

Abstract

Inter-organ crosstalk plays an essential role in the physiological homeostasis of the heart and other organs, and requires a complex interaction between a host of cellular, molecular, and neural factors. Derangements in these interactions can initiate multi-organ dysfunction. This is the case, for instance, in the heart or kidneys where a pathological alteration in one organ can unfavorably affect function in another distant organ; attention is currently being paid to understanding the physiopathological consequences of kidney dysfunction on cardiac performance that lead to cardiorenal syndrome. Different cardiorenal connectors (renin–angiotensin or sympathetic nervous system activation, inflammation, uremia, etc.) and non-traditional risk factors potentially contribute to multi-organ failure. Of these, inflammation may be crucial as inflammatory cells contribute to over-production of eicosanoids and lipid second messengers that activate intracellular signaling pathways involved in pathogenesis. Indeed, inflammation biomarkers are often elevated in patients with cardiac or renal dysfunction. Epigenetics, a dynamic process that regulates gene expression and function, is also recognized as an important player in single-organ disease. Principal epigenetic modifications occur at the level of DNA (i.e., methylation) and histone proteins; aberrant DNA methylation is associated with pathogenesis of organ dysfunction through a number of mechanisms (inflammation, nitric oxide bioavailability, endothelin, etc.). Herein, we focus on the potential contribution of inflammation in pathogenesis of cardiorenal syndrome. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiorenal syndrome; inflammation; epigenetics; heart dysfunction; kidney dysfunction; organ crosstalk cardiorenal syndrome; inflammation; epigenetics; heart dysfunction; kidney dysfunction; organ crosstalk
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kingma, J.G.; Simard, D.; Rouleau, J.R.; Drolet, B.; Simard, C. The Physiopathology of Cardiorenal Syndrome: A Review of the Potential Contributions of Inflammation. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2017, 4, 21.

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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. EISSN 2308-3425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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