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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2017, 4(4), 19; doi:10.3390/jcdd4040019

Kinking and Torsion Can Significantly Improve the Efficiency of Valveless Pumping in Periodically Compressed Tubular Conduits. Implications for Understanding of the Form-Function Relationship of Embryonic Heart Tubes

Group Cardio-Embryology, Institute of Anatomy and Embryology, UMG, Georg-August-University Goettingen, D-37075 Goettingen, Germany
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Received: 7 September 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 15 November 2017 / Published: 19 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Left–Right Asymmetry and Cardiac Morphogenesis)
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Abstract

Valveless pumping phenomena (peristalsis, Liebau-effect) can generate unidirectional fluid flow in periodically compressed tubular conduits. Early embryonic hearts are tubular conduits acting as valveless pumps. It is unclear whether such hearts work as peristaltic or Liebau-effect pumps. During the initial phase of its pumping activity, the originally straight embryonic heart is subjected to deforming forces that produce bending, twisting, kinking, and coiling. This deformation process is called cardiac looping. Its function is traditionally seen as generating a configuration needed for establishment of correct alignments of pulmonary and systemic flow pathways in the mature heart of lung-breathing vertebrates. This idea conflicts with the fact that cardiac looping occurs in all vertebrates, including gill-breathing fishes. We speculate that looping morphogenesis may improve the efficiency of valveless pumping. To test the physical plausibility of this hypothesis, we analyzed the pumping performance of a Liebau-effect pump in straight and looped (kinked) configurations. Compared to the straight configuration, the looped configuration significantly improved the pumping performance of our pump. This shows that looping can improve the efficiency of valveless pumping driven by the Liebau-effect. Further studies are needed to clarify whether this finding may have implications for understanding of the form-function relationship of embryonic hearts. View Full-Text
Keywords: heart looping; blood vessel kinking; valveless pumping; Liebau effect; form-function relationship heart looping; blood vessel kinking; valveless pumping; Liebau effect; form-function relationship
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Hiermeier, F.; Männer, J. Kinking and Torsion Can Significantly Improve the Efficiency of Valveless Pumping in Periodically Compressed Tubular Conduits. Implications for Understanding of the Form-Function Relationship of Embryonic Heart Tubes. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2017, 4, 19.

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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. EISSN 2308-3425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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