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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2016, 3(4), 32; doi:10.3390/jcdd3040032

Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms Linking Air Pollution and Congenital Heart Disease

Institute of Clinical Physiology-National Research Council (CNR), Via Moruzzi, 1 56124 Pisa, Italy
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Academic Editors: Bradley B. Keller and Andy Wessels
Received: 28 July 2016 / Revised: 8 November 2016 / Accepted: 26 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
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Abstract

Epidemiological studies strongly suggest that parental air pollutants exposure during the periconceptional period may play a major role in causing fetal/newborn malformations, including a frequent heterogeneity in the methods applied and a difficulty in estimating the clear effect of environmental toxicants. Moreover, only some couples exposed to toxicants during the pre-conception period give birth to a child with congenital anomalies. The reasons for such phenomena remain elusive but they can be explained by the individual, innate ability to metabolize these contaminants that eventually defines the ultimate dose of a biological active toxicant. In this paper, we reviewed the major evidence regarding the role of parental air pollutant exposure on congenital heart disease (CHD) risk as well as the modulating effect on detoxification systems. Finally, major epigenetic alterations induced by adverse environment contaminants have been revised as possible mechanisms altering a correct heart morphogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: congenital heart disease; air pollutions; individual susceptibility; epigenetics congenital heart disease; air pollutions; individual susceptibility; epigenetics
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Vecoli, C.; Pulignani, S.; Andreassi, M.G. Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms Linking Air Pollution and Congenital Heart Disease. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2016, 3, 32.

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