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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2016, 3(4), 29; doi:10.3390/jcdd3040029

The Dorsal Mesenchymal Protrusion and the Pathogenesis of Atrioventricular Septal Defects

1
Department of Regenerative Medicine and Cell Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425, USA
2
Department of Histology and Embryology, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Road, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bradley B. Keller
Received: 23 August 2016 / Revised: 16 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 September 2016 / Published: 26 September 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6032 KB, uploaded 26 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

Congenital heart malformations are the most common type of defects found at birth. About 1% of infants are born with one or more heart defect on a yearly basis. Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) causes more deaths in the first year of life than any other congenital abnormality, and each year, nearly twice as many children die in the United States from CHD as from all forms of childhood cancers combined. Atrioventricular septal defects (AVSD) are congenital heart malformations affecting approximately 1 in 2000 live births. Babies born with an AVSD often require surgical intervention shortly after birth. However, even after successful surgery, these individuals typically have to deal with lifelong complications with the most common being a leaky mitral valve. In recent years the understanding of the molecular etiology and morphological mechanisms associated with the pathogenesis of AVSDs has significantly changed. Specifically, these studies have linked abnormal development of the Dorsal Mesenchymal Protrusion (DMP), a Second Heart Field-derived structure, to the development of this congenital defect. In this review we will be discuss some of the latest insights into the role of the DMP in the normal formation of the atrioventricular septal complex and in the pathogenesis of AVSDs. View Full-Text
Keywords: atrioventricular septal defects; AVSD; dorsal mesenchymal protrusion; DMP; pathogenesis; etiology; congenital heart defect; development atrioventricular septal defects; AVSD; dorsal mesenchymal protrusion; DMP; pathogenesis; etiology; congenital heart defect; development
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MDPI and ACS Style

Burns, T.; Yang, Y.; Hiriart, E.; Wessels, A. The Dorsal Mesenchymal Protrusion and the Pathogenesis of Atrioventricular Septal Defects. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2016, 3, 29.

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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. EISSN 2308-3425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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